From applying for funding to co-financing cost of vaccines, Gavi emphasises country ownership of immunisation programmes
Developing country governments have long provided childhood immunisations as part of their national health services.
Yet, prior to Gavi, international aid programmes were project-based and short-term with external development agencies and donors setting the agenda.
Gavi's business model is built on the principle that countries and their local partners are best placed to run immunisation programmes and manage their own roll-outs:
- Governments define their funding priorities/activities per programme support;
- Gavi funds are channelled through existing government systems;
- Governments report back on performance through Annual Progress Reports (APRs).
To avoid duplicating roles and tap into existing systems, Gavi immunisation initiatives work within the framework of overall national health service goals and objectives, and are carefully coordinated with both local agencies and other international aid sources.
1. Country-initiated proposals
Under the Vaccine Alliance's funding mechanism, developing countries take the lead in initiating proposals for Gavi funding, choosing what support to apply for and when.
Governments are invited to take advantage of 'funding windows' by applying for different types of programme support:
Countries submit their funding proposals to the Secretariat before an Independent Review Committee (IRC) composed of Vaccine Alliance members, makes its final recommendations to the Gavi Board. With Gavi support spanning several years, countries are obliged to submit annual reports so the Secretariat can monitor their progress.
2. Integration with national health plans
Countries must demonstrate that their funding proposals are integrated into the broader framework of their long-term health plans by submitting a comprehensive multi-year plan (cMYP) for immunisation. The cMYP forces health and finance ministries to work together on a single strategic approach to funding and determine which health sector interventions to prioritise.
To ensure that Gavi support meets countries' own priorities, support is committed for the duration of national health and immunisation plans.
3. Coodination with countries' development partners
As a condition for receiving support, Gavi-eligible countries must set-up an Interagency Coordination Committee (ICC), which brings together WHO and UNICEF as well as civil society organisations.
This is where Gavi's unique model is able to draw on the technical skills of its individual partners already in the field:
- WHO's immunisation experts work closely with health ministries, to do due diligence on countries' vaccine needs, ensure that applications are based on evidence-based decisions and monitor results.
- UNICEF's global vaccine procurement facility and widespread presence in developing countries helps applicants ensure that the right vaccines reach the right people in the right place.
The ICC is chaired by the local health ministry. Gavi requires ICC signatures on applications for NVS and ISS, as well as annual progress reports.
4. Country ownership
In another example of how the Gavi model encourages country ownership, the Vaccine Alliance invites countries to propose their own solutions for improving the ability of health systems to deliver vaccines where and to the extent they are needed. This can range from funding healthcare training to providing support for sophisticate mobile telephone networks that monitor stocks.
Gavi then offers cash support for countries to implement the fixes. Gavi does not dictate how governments should spend the money as long as improved performance goals for immunisation coverage are met: more children reached, more lives saved.
Gavi has pioneered a co-financing model which requires that recipient countries contribute towards the cost of the vaccine.
Co-financing is a key pillar of putting countries in charge as it ensures their commitment to the long-term sustainability of immunisation programmes.