Vaccine supply and procurement

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Gavi's strategy for 2016-2020 includes an explicit goal to shape markets for vaccines and other immunisation products

Gavi plays an active role in promoting innovation, affordability and supply continuity in the global market for vaccines and other immunisation-related products. In doing so, we aim to help lower-income countries to access secure and sufficient supply of quality products at appropriate and sustainable prices.

Supply and procurement strategy

In June 2016, the Gavi Board approved a new supply and procurement strategy for the 2016–2020 period.

The new strategy takes a long-term approach to creating healthy markets, focusing particularly on creating the conditions necessary for countries to successfully transition out of our support. It also defines a greater role for Gavi in product innovation, and calls for stronger collaboration with vaccine manufacturers.

The objectives of the strategy are:

  • ensure sufficient and secure supply;
  • reduce costs to an appropriate and sustainable level; and
  • incentivise development of innovative, quality products.

Information transparency

Gavi recognises the importance of timely, transparent and accurate information sharing on expected vaccine demand and supply dynamics.  We continue to publish awarded prices, public roadmaps and UNICEF market updates.

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Long-term strategic demand forecasts offer visibility into future market needs to Gavi stakeholders including donors and industry partners 

For more than 5 years, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, has been using strategic demand forecasts (SDFs) to improve its understanding of vaccine markets. In the context of the Gavi supply and procurement strategy, the SDF is an important tool to ensure clarity and understanding of the Gavi market for important stakeholders, including manufacturers and countries.

The SDF has three primary uses:

  1. predict the Vaccine Alliance’s long-term vaccine volume required for the Gavi market;
  2. input into Gavi’s impact projections which include numbers of people vaccinated and health outcomes such as deaths averted;
  3. serve as the basis for calculating financial requirements for the Gavi-supported vaccine programmes.


The SDF is generated by the Gavi Secretariat once a year and includes all 73 countries that were eligible for Gavi support as of 2011 and a time horizon of 3 to 20 years.

Gavi benefits from the expertise of a SDF Advisory Team composed of Vaccine Alliance partners and other experts. This group serves as an advisory body responsible for providing advice to the Gavi Secretariat on the SDF. This includes providing advice on the global methodology including selection of data sources and assumptions used to forecast vaccine demand.

Other consultations take place with vaccine experts in the public and private sectors to ensure the SDFs reflect a range of views into the evolution of vaccine markets. Presently, Gavi is producing SDFs for 10 vaccines, including:

  • human papillomavirus
  • inactivated polio
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • measles-containing
  • meningococcal A
  • pentavalent
  • pneumococcal conjugate
  • rotavirus
  • typhoid conjugate
  • yellow fever

The 2015 SDF v12 is current as of the fourth quarter of 2015.

The detailed product profiles (DPPs) have been developed to help countries decide which vaccine presentation is the best ‘fit’ for inclusion in their immunisation programmes.

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Increasing access to information

The DPPs provide countries with easy access to up-to-date and comprehensive information on Gavi-supported vaccines. The DPPs also provide an overview of all WHO prequalified (WHO PQ) vaccine products for the 11 vaccine groups that Gavi supports, including those vaccine presentations currently not procured by UNICEF on behalf of Gavi. The format of the DPPs was created specifically to allow countries to compare WHO PQ vaccine products, fully informing them of their options. As a support-tool, the DPPs are referenced in the application guidelines to facilitate decision making.

Informed decision making

Countries are encouraged to consider factors beyond vaccine procurement cost and country co-financing requirements: the DPPs include information on vaccine presentations, pricing, indicative wastage rates, manufacturers, cold chain volume and handling. The DPPs are updated on a fixed schedule (at least every 6 months) or with more frequency if required.


Information contained in the DPPs comes from a variety of sources including the Gavi Secretariat, WHO PQ vaccine webpages, WHO position papers and UNICEF’s product menu for vaccines supplied by UNICEF for Gavi-supported programmes.

US$ 1 = US$ 18

A study in Health Affairs covering 73 Gavi-supported countries over the 2011–2020 period shows that, for every US$ 1 spent on immunisation, US$ 18 are saved in healthcare costs, lost wages and lost productivity due to illness. If we take into account the broader benefits of people living longer, healthier lives, the return on investment rises to US$ 48 per US$ 1 spent.

Ozawa S, Clark S, Portnoy A et al. Return on investment from childhood immunizations in low- and middle-income countries, 2011-20, Health Affairs 2016

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