Underused vaccines (also referred to as “underutilised vaccines”)

Please see new and underused vaccines support.


A commercial name for one type of pre-filled, non-reusable, single-dose injection device designed to be used more safely, easily and accurately by community vaccinators. It combines vaccine, syringe and needle in a low-volume presentation.

Universal Childhood Immunization

This is an initiative launched by UNICEF in partnership with WHO and others in 1990 with the goal of 80% immunisation coverage of the world‟s children under one year of age against six diseases (tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and measles). Global immunisation coverage rates against these diseases reached 76% or above in 2006. 

Vaccine Fund, The (VF or TVF)

The Vaccine Fund was the precursor to the GAVI Fund.  

Vaccine procurement

For the majority of Gavi-supported countries, Gavi procures vaccines through UNICEF, which uses economies of scale to negotiate the lowest prices possible. The six Gavi-eligible countries in the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) region use the PAHO revolving fund for procurement. Some countries also choose to use national procurement systems. This mechanism of pooled procurement allows greater leverage on the market to negotiate best prices. 

Vaccine vial monitors (VVM)

A vaccine vial monitor is a label on a vaccine vial that changes colour when exposed to extremes of temperature over a period of time. If the VVM indicates a colour change, health workers know that the vaccine inside should not be used. Since 2004, all vaccines purchased through Gavi have included VVMs to ensure vaccine safety and efficacy under field conditions.  

Vaccine-preventable disease (VPD)

Many diseases are preventable with existing vaccines. Gavi currently focuses on vaccines that protect against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, measles, hepatitis B, yellow fever, rotavirus diarrhoea, and different types of pneumonia and meningitis

Work plan

The Gavi Work Plan identifies the activities, responsibilities, timelines and budgets for principal Alliance partners such as UNICEF, the World Health Organization, and the World Bank, as well as the Gavi Secretariat. It specifies the activities required to reach the annual milestones of the Gavi Strategic Plan 2011-2015.  

Yellow fever (YF)

Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne viral haemorrhagic fever that occurs in tropical regions of Africa and in the Americas, often in explosive epidemics involving heavy loss of life. Although an effective vaccine has been available for 60 years, the number of people infected over the last two decades has increased and yellow fever is now a serious public health issue again. Gavi supports yellow fever immunisation in endemic countries and through the Yellow Fever Initiative.  

Yellow Fever Initiative

The Yellow Fever Initiative, led by WHO and UNICEF, supported by Gavi, aims to dramatically reduce the risk of yellow fever outbreaks in 12 endemic countries in Africa.

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