Chances are you’ve heard of a vaccine antigen – the core of what makes a vaccine work. Whether for flu, rotavirus, or measles, the vaccine antigen is what activates your immune system and prepares you for future threats.
Like a hero’s sidekick doing indispensable work behind the scenes, vaccine adjuvants don’t always get the attention they deserve.
“An adjuvant boosts a vaccine’s performance and, in some cases, generates a specific type of immune response not obtained with the vaccine antigen alone,” explains Lou Bourgeois, a science officer with PATH’s Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access.
PATH launched a Phase 1 trial to test adding a new adjuvant to inactivated polio vaccine. The adjuvant is called double-mutant labile toxin or dmLT. This new trial will build on recent findings showing dmLT can improve the intestinal immune response of both oral and injected vaccines.
If successful, this new approach could change the landscape of polio vaccines for years to come.
There are two kinds of polio vaccine: oral and inactivated.
Oral polio vaccine is the go-to option for controlling outbreaks because it stimulates intestinal immunity, which stops the chain of person-to-person transmission – an essential feature for high-risk settings.
Unfortunately, oral polio vaccine has one downside: in very rare instances, the weakened virus it contains can regain strength after being “shed” from the body. This can actually cause new outbreaks, particularly in areas where many children are unvaccinated.
Inactivated polio vaccine – the other kind – is injected into the muscle rather than being taken orally. Because the virus is inactivated, it doesn’t run the risk of causing community outbreaks, but it doesn’t stop person-to-person transmission either.
“What if we could have the best of both worlds with a single inactivated vaccine?” asks Deborah Higgins, a project director with PATH’s Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access. “We could put an end to vaccine-derived outbreaks and stop person-to-person transmission. If dmLT can make it possible, it could be a powerful new tool in the polio eradication era.”
The current Phase 1 trial is testing the safety and immunogenicity of IPV co-administered with dmLT (IPV-dmLT) on the heels of some exciting dmLT news from another PATH clinical trial.
Last fall, in a milestone for both dmLT and the E. coli vaccine candidate ETVAX, results from a study in Bangladesh demonstrated both the safety and improved immunogenicity of the oral vaccine when administered with dmLT in young children and infants.
ETEC – enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by its full name – is one of the most common bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea. It causes substantial illness and death among children in low- and middle-income countries, and no vaccines against this pathogen are available – yet. If the next phases prove successful, ETVAX could be the first.
Every ounce of improved vaccine performance pays back dividends for people around the world.
This finding has implications for other oral vaccines, too (such as cholera): children in regions of high disease burden – many of whom have intestinal damage from repeated enteric infections – don’t always get the full protective benefits of oral vaccines as a result. The potential of dmLT to help a vaccine perform at full capacity in an intestinal environment is tremendous.
“Ultimately, our hope is that dmLT can make vaccines work even better for the children who need them most.” says Lou. “Every ounce of improved vaccine performance pays back dividends for people around the world.”
The pandemic undermined women and girls’ fundamental rights and we must learn lessons about its impacts to build back better and ensure these groups aren't left behind. Empowering women and girls has proven to increase the health and well-being…
COVID-19 is hitting nomads in Kenya’s Rift Valley hard. They are turning away from traditional medicine and customs as a result.
Although people who have recovered from COVID-19 may be less likely to catch it again, there are many reasons to avoid becoming infected in the first place.
New discovery could help scientists develop more targeted drugs and vaccines.
Israeli data adds to mounting evidence that taking a COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy is safe.
Delivering COVID-19 vaccines in low- and middle-income countries is only the first step in being able to vaccinate the world and bring this pandemic to an end. It’s essential to get vaccines from tarmacs into the arms of people living in last…
The arrival of cholera on European shores in the 19th Century helped kick off the long path towards modern global health institutions and diplomacy. However, these beginnings were anything but fair.
Scientists around the world are working faster than ever to develop and produce vaccines that can stop the spread of COVID-19, with 21 vaccines now being rolled out in countries worldwide. Here is an at-a-glance overview of those vaccines and…
Just 0.2% of COVID-19 vaccine doses delivered to lower-income countries through COVAX expired before they could be administered, estimated to be a significantly lower amount than wealthier countries.
With support from Gavi, WHO and UNICEF, Togo is introducing various mechanisms to turn the tide of COVID-19.
The White House is calling a virtual COVID-19 Summit on Wednesday, 22 September. Its targets for global vaccination are ambitious and essential as we work together to defeat COVID-19.
Thomas Sorenson, Senior Manager in the Cold Chain Unit, UNICEF Supply Division, explains the work behind the scenes to roll-out the largest ultra-cold chain deployment in history.
Four UN agencies have compiled a first-of-its-kind Compendium of guidance on health and environment to help policymakers save millions of lives. The Compendium pulls together 500 actions and recommendations on everything from clean water and…
In Kisumu, which is still recovering from the after-effects of flooding, authorities are working to bring vaccines to the beleaguered residents.
In Malawi urban areas have more unimmunised zero-dose children than rural regions. The government is working hard to close the immunisation gap.
The 76th UN General Assembly (UNGA 76) will take place from 14-30 September 2021. Could we see a breakthrough in the fight for universal vaccine access?
Although it’s not clear how this compares to the full dose licensed worldwide for emergency use, a quarter of a dose produces an equivalent immune response to immunity from infection.
Nepal has distributed more than 10 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine according to a considered allocation schedule based on humane, inclusive, epidemiological good sense. The country’s future safety depends on the willingness of the rest of the…
A study in Malawi found that TCVs are 84% efficacious among children 6 months to 15 years of age – the first such evidence among African children.
While vaccines have helped save millions of lives in this pandemic, the ever-evolving virus has spread so far that it may be here to stay.
In Lagos, Nigeria's most populous state, COVID-19 survivors are encouraging more Nigerians to be vaccinated.
The war against Boko Haram in Cameroon's northern region and the struggle against armed secessionists in the west have taken a significant toll on vaccine roll-out.
With COVID-19 still ongoing, viruses like Nipah are nipping at its heels as the potential next pandemic threat.
As the African continent battles a third wave of coronavirus infections, access to reproductive health and rights is an ongoing challenge.
The COVID-19 pandemic has reportedly increased the number of teenage mothers across Africa. Inadequate childcare support and stigma can prevent teenage mothers accessing routine immunisation and nutritional support for their infants. Girl Effect…
Even though many wealthy countries are planning to roll out booster doses, a Lancet review has concluded that the standard COVID-19 vaccination regimen is highly effective, even against the Delta variant.
Kenya has ramped up its COVID-19 vaccination programme, expanding the list of who can get vaccinated.
While the supply is lower than predictions earlier this year, wealthy countries and manufacturers hold the power to improve supply.
mRNA vaccines are the first synthetic vaccines, meaning they are made outside of a living cell. But so are lots of things we consume every day, such as vitamin C pills and other dietary supplements.
The Sierra Leonean documentary is a complex portrait of courageous solidarity amid contagion.
The British artist John D’oh uses humour and wit to drive home messages about vaccines and other measures such as hand-washing and social distancing to stop the spread of COVID-19.
Launch of vaccine trial marks “significant milestone” towards beating this debilitating disease.
South Sudan has systematically implemented campaigns to eradicate polio in the country. Hard-working vaccinators are striving to keep it that way.
A study looking at health issues such as stroke or seizures after COVID-19 vaccination showed that vaccines weren’t linked to any significant number of side effects.
Data from the UK suggests double vaccination lowers the risk of ongoing COVID-19 symptoms, as well as reducing hospitalisations and the severity of the initial illness.
With support from Gavi and other partners, Nigeria’s CDC is in a strong position to test for and combat yellow fever.
Gavi has supported a major expansion in yellow fever diagnostic capacity in Africa over the past three years. The results show just how much improving diagnostics can have a cost-effective yet significant impact on immunisation programmes.
More often than not, the road to a meaningful triumph is a bumpy one.
While most people jumped at the chance to get their COVID-19 vaccine, some have been more hesitant over concerns about safety. Here we explain all the checks and balances in place to make sure the vaccines are safe.
Additional G20 support can make the COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access facility a success. Failure to achieve equitable access would mean more lives lost, broken health-care systems, even deadlier and more transmissible variants, and a pandemic with…
Getting market women and pen-pen drivers vaccinated is critical to tackling COVID-19 in Liberia.
The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated how ill-prepared health systems and societies are in the face of pandemic shocks and their protracted impact. Now, as global attention begins to shift towards improving the way we prevent and respond to…
Getting COVID-19 vaccines out to countries isn’t just about ensuring supply – a major stumbling block can be their ‘absorptive capacity,’ or the ability to deliver the volume of vaccine coming their way. Here, we talk to Alex de Jonquieres,…
COVID-19 boosted sales of antibiotic formulations used in adults and adolescents in India. Antibiotics should not be prescribed to treat viral diseases. Misuse of antibiotics can result in drug-resistant infections.
Brazilian scientists have found that transmission of hantavirus, a deadly infection, could be reduced by 45% if Brazil restores its Atlantic Forest to levels mandated by its Native Vegetation Protection Law. Hantavirus, spresd by contact with…
Distance and fear of the pandemic has put many parents off from taking their children to health clinics in Zimbabwe. So one converted taxi is taking the clinic to them.
The Marburg virus will be present wherever the Egyptian Rousette bat occurs.
A rapidly mutating coronavirus variant called C.1.2 is generating headlines around the world. Here’s what we know about it so far.
Pandemic ceasefires offer an opportunity to expand vaccination efforts, experts say. But negotiation is tricky.
A new study from Israel suggests the risk of a breakthrough infection among vaccinated people was higher than among people who’d previously had COVID-19 but had not been vaccinated. However the greatest benefit came to those who'd previously…
A universal vaccine has been described as the ‘holy grail’ – but how close are we to getting one?
Accurate, evidence-based information about COVID-19 vaccines to provide people with essential facts about the vaccines that will help end this crisis.
Children can get long COVID, but it seems to be less common than in adults. And they tend to recover quicker.
More than a quarter of a million infants in low- and middle-income countries are predicted to have died in 2020 due to the economic impact of COVID-19.
With evidence showing the COVID virus is airborne, it's no coincidence many outbreaks in schools have occurred in winter – when windows are closed.
In Pointe-Noire city, the Republic of the Congo's economic capital, a group of volunteers working as town criers are winning the shouting match against the COVID-19 'infodemic.'
With COVID-19 stretching the healthcare system in many parts of Nigeria, health workers and community leaders have to go the extra mile to ensure vaccines reach victims of the country’s latest cholera outbreak.
Malawi’s Ministry of Health recently conducted a nationwide polio vaccine catch up campaign targeting 1.8 million children who had previously missed out on the vaccine.
Children are increasingly falling sick worldwide, but existing poor health and inadequate access to health care means the most vulnerable kids are most at risk.
A new study suggests the RTS,S malaria vaccine alone is as effective as preventive antimalarials; together they could save thousands of lives.
Wildfire smoke has been linked to higher COVID-19 mortality rates, threatening to compound what is already one of the worst burdens of coronavirus infections and deaths in the world. At particular risk are Indigenous populations, who suffer…
Kenya’s community workers fight to continue vaccinating children during the pandemic to avoid the reversal of historic gains.
A public health scholar based in New Delhi explains how India has emerged from the massive spike in COVID-19 cases, even as the country braces for a new wave.
Experts point to a more fundamental right to be protected from the disease, particularly as it continues to spread primarily among the unvaccinated.
Aid agencies in Goma are joining efforts to contain cholera in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) after the eruption of the Nyiragongo.
The Bengaluru street artist Baadal Nanjundaswamy is well-loved for his public-spirited art interventions. Lockdown managed to quieten him for a moment – but only for a moment.
As New Zealand enters another lockdown after detecting a single COVID case, it's time to consider whether stringent zero COVID strategies are feasible in the long term.
In the absence of good vaccines, doctors treating epidemic diseases must rely on cumbersome PPE as their one safety net. At least modern hazmat suits, unlike the 17th century plague doctor's all-leather outfit, actually work.
COVID-19 has caused a decline in the delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines that protect girls from cervical cancer. Anuradha Gupta, the Deputy CEO of Gavi, explains what we must do to create more access to these vaccines.
For the waster pickers of Bulawayo, COVID-19 has posed risks to both their health and their incomes. Hope for a vaccine is reaching fever pitch.
Using big data and deep learning, machines and systems are offering new ways of responding to a pandemic.
Rich countries are now considering giving booster doses to vulnerable individuals, having fully-vaccinated most adults. Is this wise?
The way we live can shape the evolution of pathogens, for better or worse.
COVID-19 variants threaten to undermine global vaccine programmes unless we accelerate the pace of delivery and rise to the challenge of global deployment.
The news is full of stories of people who refused the jab who died of COVID.
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic hit routine immunisation hard in Zimbabwe, but thanks to the hard work of local health workers children are now getting the protection they need.
Many COVID-19 antibody tests are not designed to specifically detect antibodies that develop as a result of vaccination, and thus cannot show whether antibodies are of the right quantity or quality for protection against infection or illness.
Access to routine immunisation and primary health care is changing the lives of children in Makoko, Nigeria’s largest coastal slum.
Could artificial intelligence succeed where people have failed in helping people overcome their fears about vaccines?
Vaccines are among modern medicine’s greatest innovations, allowing billions of people to lead healthy lives. But stopping outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease – and not only COVID-19 – depends on achieving critical mass with immunization…
We all need to know about the science of COVID as we battle through pandemic, but the ultimate story will lie in how it changed our society.
New study finds TCV prevents 85% of cases among vaccinated children in Bangladesh, which has one of the highest typhoid burdens in the world.
To improve routine immunisation, Nigeria is implementing the Accelerated Action for Impact (AAI) initiative.
Henrique Montanari, also known as EDMX, has been daubing the walls of São Paulo with striking images conveying his fear for the impact the pandemic is having on his children, part of the “the pandemic generation”.
Breakthrough infections are to be expected, but it doesn’t mean the COVID-19 vaccines aren’t working.
Being immunocompromised appears to affect the vaccine response, but this seems to vary depending on the causes of the person's low immunity.
The latest IPCC report emphasises the inevitability of some degree of climate change. The human health impact of this should not be ignored.
The narrative of the Broad Street pump is the story of a vital epidemiological discovery; it’s also a story about discovery: it has the tidy, conclusive quality of a fable about science. But in the years after its discovery, John Snow’s theory of…
Health workers, community leaders and the Ministry of Health are hard at work trying to contain the damage COVID-19 is causing routine immunisation in the DRC.
COVID restrictions have prevented the spread of other respiratory viruses too. As these are lifted, the UK government has warned parents of a delayed surge in infections.
The best single predictor of vaccine uptake per US state is not political affiliation, but the share of the population that believes the human race has always existed. Such findings do not bode well for the global effort to boost vaccination…
The sooner we start using booster jabs, the more likely it is that we will need them.
Respiratory viruses, such as influenza and SARS-CoV-2, while spread primarily by respiratory droplets can also be spread by contaminated hands touching the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and eyes.
In 2014, Nigeria escaped an Ebola pandemic in the span of 93 days because of the bravery and quick response of health care workers in Lagos. As the world fights through the COVID-19 pandemic, the film 93 Days – though grim – is a hopeful reminder…
In rural Zambia, clinics and health centres rely on a limited number of medical personnel to run immunisation programmes, which makes the support of community leaders vital.
Offit’s sobering inquiry into “one of the worst biological disasters in American history” is a work of unflinching investigative journalism which lands, finally, not as a whodunit, but as a tribute to modern systems of meticulous vaccine…
From clinical trials to population surveillance, these are the multilevel mechanisms that ensure vaccine safety – including the safety of COVID-19 vaccines.
During a pandemic supply bottlenecks of essential medical products are almost inevitable, but with COVID-19 this has been further exacerbated by governments hoarding doses and imposing export bans.
Uganda is setting an example by including its estimated 1.4 million refugees in its COVID-19 vaccine programme, however there are still barriers to overcome.
As World War I reached its climax, a terrible influenza pandemic broke out. By summer 1919, it had claimed many more lives than the conflict – but the conflict, researchers say, helped create the conditions for the devastating spread of the so-…
The Savannah Innovation Hub teaches young women in Garissa County to counteract COVID-19 vaccine misinformation from groups like Al-Shabaab.
Abdullah and his family escaped genocidal violence in Myanmar in 2017, survived a diphtheria epidemic in Bangladesh’s Cox’s Bazar and weathered the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in a Rohingya camp. Then, in December 2020, he returned to the…
Pakistan is one of two countries where wild poliovirus remains endemic making it essential that the entire country supports the successful implementation of every polio campaign. Women play a critical role, often working at polio’s frontline.
Vaccines against cancer may seem like a futuristic notion, but children around the world are already getting protection against two of the biggest causes of cervical and liver cancer: HPV and hepatitis B.
As COVID-19 began to grip northern California, one furloughed lunch lady turned herself into the Velvet Bandit, a pandemic warrior spreading her pro-science message across the streets of the Golden State.
For most of us, the pandemic did not start with a close encounter with the virus. Instead, this new normal began when public life was suddenly snuffed out: streets emptied, squares and parks closed, shops and workplaces shuttered. But, even as…
Just because face coverings aren't mandatory doesn't mean they're not protective – so here's how to ask someone to wear one.
This series cuts through the noise to help you catch up with the latest COVID-19 developments in an entertaining and digestible way.
While there was some initial reluctance to get vaccinated against COVID-19 in Eastern Uganda, attitudes are changing fast.
BCG remains the only widely available vaccine for TB. Yet the development of a COVID-19 vaccine over the last year shows that there is capacity to rapidly create new vaccines.
The #VaccinesWork Book Club is home to reviews, interviews and recommendations of some of our favourite books, podcasts, films and documentaries focused on vaccination and global health.
Real-world data is starting shed light on the performance of COVID-19 vaccines in less than perfect conditions.
Dr Annie Kelly, writer and host of a new podcast which tells the story of the smallpox vaccine, talks to #VaccinesWork.
Mnookin’s 2011 investigation of the spread of anti-vax feeling is a pandemic-era must-read.
New data shows the impact COVID-19 is having on routine immunisation programmes worldwide, particularly in lower-income countries. We need action, now, to get routine immunisation programmes back on track and ensure that everyone, everywhere is…
Volunteers, including King Dakolo of the Epetiama kingdom, are sensitising and convincing people to accept the COVID-19 vaccine in Bayelsa State, Southern Nigeria.
Rather than translating their own COVID-19 vaccination successes into a renewed global push to end the pandemic, rich countries are becoming complacent while the rest of the world grows increasingly desperate. But the emergence of dangerous new…
#VaccinesWork spoke to nurse Fatmata Kamara* about how the COVID-19 vaccine roll-out in Sierra Leone is progressing.
How investigation into long COVID will help us create treatments.
Persistent power cuts had hampered the provision of healthcare across Zimbabwe. Solar power systems are now offering a solution to ensure children continue to get their vaccines.
Indemnity and liability was one of the thorniest problems COVAX had to solve to successfully roll out COVID-19 vaccines in lower-income countries. The solution is a world first, which could offer a model for future pandemics.
The widespread acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines in low- to middle-income countries should boost global coronavirus immunity, if distribution issues can be resolved.
Despite a second lockdown, outreach initiatives ensure continuation of Uganda’s routine child immunisation.
Dr John Nkengasong is a Cameroonian virologist and Director of the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC), which is working to strengthen the ability of Africa’s public health institutions to detect and respond to disease…
A philosopher of public health ponders whether taking your mask off on July 19 is like punching someone in the face or like riding a bike.
Yoshinobu Nagamine, Senior Donor Manager at Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, describes the role contactless biometrics can play in accelerating vaccine delivery for those lacking formal identification.
If people feel a sense of duty to their local community, they're more likely to protect themselves and others by taking the COVID-19 vaccine.
Hamburg street artist and former immunologist Lapiz set out to critique his fellow citizens’ rush to jump on planes after getting vaccinated. So why did the travel agency he’d chosen as his canvas thank him for it?
COVID-19 has made local, home-grown production of vaccines a national priority in countries around the world. #VaccinesWork spoke to Professor Martins Emeje at Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) to…
Comparisons with flu are unhelpful – these diseases need to be treated differently.
It may not be high tech, but it works. Kenyan community health volunteers use tracking books to ensure that children receive routine vaccinations.
Some viruses gradually become less virulent over time, but there's no guarantee that SARS-CoV-2 will follow that pattern.
The lambda variant ripped through Peru and is now spreading globally. But there is little evidence that it is more dangerous than the original variant.
COVID-19 is unlikely to be the last coronavirus we ever see. Scientists are already trying to make a one-size-fits-all vaccine to stop a future coronavirus epidemic in its tracks.
A large study suggests the influenza vaccine may reduce the risk of some of the worst consequences of COVID-19.
Community health volunteers collaborated with local structures in the slums to help inhabitants survive lockdown and stop the spread of disease.
If immunity is waning or ineffectual against new variants, then boosters could be needed – but there needs to be evidence that they're necessary.
How a makeshift health centre is providing a lifeline to communities in Nigeria.
Vaccine manufacturing doesn't come cheap. It depends heavily on support from developed countries. It also takes much more than relaxing intellectual property rights and a desire for vaccine equity.
Although related to the virus that caused the SARS pandemic in 2003, the COVID-19 virus has never seemed as deadly – until now.
One in three unable to properly wash hands at home during COVID-19 – WHO-UNICEF. Progress on water, sanitation and hygiene ‘must quadruple’ to meet 2030 target. Investment and prioritisation needed ‘at the highest levels’.
Will the pandemic go out with a fizzle or a bang? And what does “living with the virus” actually mean, and when will we get there?
We must seize this opportunity to shape our COVID-19 response as a chance to achieve better equity and social justice. What better way to do that than to focus on zero-dose children?
Early results from several studies have found that pets can pick up COVID-19 from their owner – but they are unlikely to be dangerous as a result.
India’s second wave of COVID-19 has devastated the country through a perfect storm of new variants, low vaccination uptake and a shortage of medical equipment and supplies. Here’s what we need to understand about the ongoing second wave to…
Nurse Rashid Abdi knows how challenging it can be to keep vaccines cold all the way from manufacture to inoculation – especially when your patients are the children of pastoralists in rural Isiolo county, Kenya.
A vaccine that had previously been authorised by the Indian government ahead of phase 3 trials now show promising results. This could add to the global armoury of vaccines against COVID-19.
New mRNA tech transfer hub to be established in South Africa. Facility will provide training and licences for vaccine development. Less than one per cent in Africa have been vaccinated against COVID-19.
The pandemic has exacerbated pre-existing inequalities, not least those disadvantaging women and girls in low- and middle-income countries. Fortunately, with today’s digital technologies, those providing health information and services for girls…
A rich network of community volunteers in Nairobi are putting skills they developed during anti-polio activities to work tackling COVID-19, and mobilising slum dwellers to get the COVID-19 vaccine.
It takes time for coronavirus to become established in the body, so a negative test doesn’t necessarily mean you won’t test positive later on.
The power sources used to keep vaccines cold used to be polluting and unreliable. We spoke to Alex de Jonquieres, Gavi’s Director of Health Systems and Immunisation Strengthening about how Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, became investors in solar…
Fake COVID-19 vaccines erode public trust in much-needed jabs and encourage vaccine hesitancy.
Before 1955, when a vaccine first made polio a preventable illness, the paralysing disease had to be treated. For many, the best option was the iron lung, a device that came to symbolise an era of anxiety in mid-20th century America.
New bioimaging technologies are pushing the boundaries of medicine. But poorer nations risk losing out on these advances. Investment in facilities and training globally is crucial to bridge the divide.
A reanalysis of 58 existing studies suggests that with COVID-19 being male or seriously overweight isn’t as risky as originally thought.
Separated for weeks and months because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the arrival of vaccines is allowing people to physically reconnect with friends and family.
We need to make the development and distribution of vaccines a truly global endeavor.
The Delta variant that has caused devastation in countries like India and the UK has now mutated to produce another variant called Delta Plus. Should we be worried?
Guinea declares end of Ebola outbreak after 42 days without new cases. Outbreak resulted in 23 likely cases, 12 deaths since February. Success attributed to community buy-in, capacity building and vaccination.
By identifying people with high levels of neutralising antibodies after a first vaccine dose, rapid tests could potentially identify those who don’t need a booster dose.
This rare side-effect from the two RNA vaccines being rolled out might be concerning but the benefits of vaccination far outweigh the risks.
Two doses have always been more protective than one, but the Delta variant has made the benefit of the second dose much greater.
The Immunization Agenda 2030’s new scorecard visualizes a journey toward pandemic recovery and global immunization progress.
Vaccinated people can still get infected with the coronavirus. So if you have symptoms of COVID-19, getting tested can protect others and help health officials keep an eye on the virus.
Forced to suffer in silence after contracting COVID-19, the arrival of vaccines is helping many Nigerians with a history of the virus overcome stigma and get their lives back on track.
Beginning today, Kenya’s Ministry of Health is beginning a major new measles-rubella vaccination campaign to defend against outbreaks.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected turn out for almost all Malawi’s health services, including routine immunisation. One local CSO is using Community Mother Care groups to trace those missing out on vaccines, helping to ensure children are…
For years, a growing number of infections that are resistant to antimicrobials has offered us a grim glimpse into a future with increasingly untreatable diseases. Now, COVID-19 has made antimicrobial resistance so much worse.
The artist Evyrein is not a believer: not in the church, not in the easy orthodoxy of the oft-repeated phrase of the early pandemic, “andrà tutto bene” – everything will be fine. But in early 2021, his mural of a rebel St. Anthony with a giant…
A major obstacle for COVID-19 vaccination programs to achieve higher and more equitable vaccine coverage throughout the world is vaccinating hard-to-reach communities.
The forecast is encouraging given the supply disruptions COVAX and countries with bilateral deals are currently experiencing, and the general challenges manufacturers are experiencing as they ramp up supply at historic speed and scale.
Masks, hand washing and physical distancing don’t only reduce the transmission of coronavirus. So, what will happen when we do away with these measures?
During the pandemic, researchers have treated Twitter as a sprawling and evolving historical document.
Affordable vaccines mean more children can now be protected from pneumonia.
Mounting evidence suggests people living with HIV may be at greater risk of dying from COVID-19. The good news is that COVID-19 vaccines appear to be safe and effective in people with HIV.
Eswatini received its first batch of 32 000 Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines in late March. 12 000 came through the COVAX facility and 20,000 through a donation from the Indian Government.
A previous infection does give you some immunity against COVID-19, but a new study suggests that vaccination gives your body a massive boost – including against variants of concern.
What do the CEO of the Vaccine Alliance and the star of a hit US TV show have in common? They both want to raise awareness about COVID-19 vaccines and COVAX’s role in getting the world vaccinated.
Mary Mallon was branded a public menace and incarcerated after typhoid outbreaks across New York City were linked to her presence in the kitchen. Was she unfairly demonised?
Wondering what you can do to help end the acute phase of the pandemic? Go Give One – is giving everyone everywhere a chance to play their part.
Mastercard, a long-standing partner of Gavi, recently committed US$ 28 million to the Gavi COVAX AMC, to ensure vaccines are accessible to those that needed them the most, no matter where they live. Vaccines Work spoke to Michael Froman to learn…
The pandemic turned our normal ways of working upside down, but there are several ways in which the new normal could bring improvements in the way we fight disease.
Antibody therapy reduces COVID-19 fatalities by a fifth, but remains inaccessible to many countries.
People who are afraid of needles are twice as likely to be vaccine hesitant, new research shows.
There are now 17 COVID-19 vaccines approved for emergency use, but as the virus continues to evolve, here is why we can’t pull the plug on research into new vaccines and therapeutics.
Although the coronavirus doesn’t cause disease and death in children as much as it does in adults, many children around the world are vulnerable to the collateral damage wreaked by the pandemic.
For the Eswatini communities living on the border with Mozambique, there are added benefits when it comes to immunisation of their children.
A new paper suggests that plant- and fish-based diets lessen the chance of developing severe symptoms – but hold off from becoming vegetarian or pescatarian for now.
The Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS CoV-2 was first detected in India and is rapidly spreading around the world. Here’s what we know about it so far.
COVID-19 virus particles can be spread via coughing, sneezing, breathing or speech, but the latter is one of the most effective ways of spreading. Here is why talking without a mask indoors could be one of the easiest ways to spread the infection…
Amidst the challenges that COVID-19 has brought, flooding in Kenya has made it even harder for the people of Kisumu County.
Is it risky or wise to delay the second dose of Covid-19 vaccine? Critics warned against the UK government policy of leaving a longer gap between doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines. Now we have more data, so what do we…
Some of the world’s wealthiest countries nations have already committed to share doses with lower-income countries through COVAX: as G7 leaders meet this week, other governments must follow suit and share their doses now, because we only have a…
Ever since the pandemic started there have been news headlines speculating about the effect of the vaccines on our reproductive system, but what does the science tell us?
Accounts of previous epidemics – by Samuel Pepys, Daniel Defoe and Katherine Porter – warn of mistakes that we risk repeating.
After a devastating typhoid outbreak swept through Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, a new, more effective vaccine is bringing hope.
It’s been over a year now since the pandemic first started, and now that vaccines are rolling out in many countries, how long do we have to wait for things to go back to ‘normal’?
We remain locked in a deadly race with the virus. We will only win when we have created a “variant-proof” world that can keep a lid on the havoc caused by its troublesome mutations.
Amid the 28.4 million cases and over 300 thousand deaths from SARS-CoV-2, a second epidemic has hit India. ‘Black fungus’, clinically known as mucormycosis, is an infection currently affecting nearly 12,000 immunocompromised patients recovering…
While we don't know exactly what causes it yet, there are a few theories put forward by a few researchers around the world.
Rapid antigen tests for COVID-19 are less sensitive than PCR tests, but here we explain why you should never ignore a positive result.
Researchers think they've calculated the limit of human lifespan – but there's more to it.
For those who migrate within Ondo State, Nigeria, access to immunisation has been complicated by the shift in focus to COVID-19.
COVID-19 vaccines were made in record speed, taking around 300 days from the moment the threat was first identified. But the world’s top scientists are aiming to overtake this world record in the next pandemic, aiming to make a vaccine in 100…
Various countries are training dogs to detect coronavirus, and the results of early clinical trials are looking promising.
Non-specific illnesses, such as headache and fatigue, are common, as are mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety.
Marginalized people suffer from being at the intersection of multiple challenges and barriers. Economic hardship has been a secondary epidemic in the LGBTIQ community. We need public health and support services that acknowledge difference.
The death toll from the pandemic has been devastatingly high, with the official figure standing at 3.5 million people, but the World Health Organization estimates the real number could be up to three times higher. Here’s why.
A significant number of post-covid patients suffer from syndromes that few doctors understand.
Community health workers, government and aid agencies join a chorus of voices encouraging vaccinations in the DRC.
Our immune system is controlled by our "body clock" – an intricate 24-hour system which controls how cells function.
Social media has been much-maligned as a source of misinformation when it comes to vaccines. But for millions of Nigerians it is having the opposite effect, encouraging them to get their jabs.
Calling variants by their country of origin has politicised the pandemic response, leading to countries being blamed and people originating from those countries stigmatised and targeted – sometimes violently. Now, the World Health Organization is…
Worldwide more than 3.5 million people have died of COVID-19 so far; now millions more are on the brink of starvation because of a connected hunger crisis.
As more people get vaccinated, and testing requirements are becoming commonplace to allow freedom to travel and work, we look at the circumstances under which you could test positive for COVID-19 even after being vaccinated.
In the COVAX Advance Market Commitment Summit, hosted by Japan, countries and industry came together to pledge support to the mission of making vaccines available equitably worldwide.
The Gavi COVAX AMC Summit “One World Protected” virtual event, hosted today by the Government of Japan and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, raised US$ 2.4 billion from nearly 40 donor governments, the private sector and foundations, exceeding the…
Further infections are not inevitable, if you take the following steps.
Several regulators have agreed the mRNA vaccine can be kept refrigerated for up to 30 days, making it easier to distribute in lower-resource settings.
Whether or not you can become reinfected with COVID-19 hasn’t been clear so far, but a new study from Denmark indicates that immune response triggered by the first infection offers good protection.
Some COVID-19 tests require you to swab your own tonsils, but could you be mistaking them for something else?
People who have had COVID-19 seem to have bone marrow cells that could produce antibodies for years to come, which could mean that immunity both from natural infection and vaccination is long lasting.
With millions of COVID-19 vaccines now being delivered around the world, they are utilising a huge hidden infrastructure, built up over decades and spreading across the globe, with one ultimate goal: keeping the vaccines cool. How did these …
New waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in countries, such as Kenya and India, have exposed the poor management of oxygen supplies. Moina Spooner, from The Conversation Africa, asked Professor Trevor Duke, an expert on [oxygen provision] and editor of…
Pamela Anyango is on a mission to boost vaccine coverage in Dandora, Kenya, home to a garbage dump that has been labelled the ‘cradle of the next pandemic’.
Mixing COVID-19 is being proposed in some countries but is it safe to do so, and how do our immune systems react?
Malawi’s Ministry of Health is using its structures to reach out to a small section of religious groups that are threatening the success of the country’s immunisation programme.
At the turn of the 20th Century, US researchers in Cuba made the historic discovery that mosquitoes spread yellow fever. The finding was not only a medical breakthrough; it would also make possible one of the world’s greatest feats of engineering…
Rift Valley fever used to mostly affect livestock in Africa. But the virus that causes it is also spread by mosquitoes whose habitats are expanding because of climate change. If it were to make its way to the rest of the world, it would decimate…
Scientists think they may have caught a canine coronavirus in the process of adapting to humans.
Some vaccines are injected into muscle; others are given orally, or under the skin. What difference does it make to our immune response?
No activity that brings you into someone else’s breathing space is safe, but the risks associated with hugging can be lowered by taking some simple precautions.
A well-planned immunisation programme can go a long way to reducing the burden of disease on a country.
COVID-19 put a huge strain on Seyram and his mother’s relationship, as well as on their individual lives. The delivery of Ghana’s first batch of vaccines from COVAX means they can begin to rebuild what was broken.
Variants of interest and variants of concern seem to be popping up at an alarming rate. But how many of them do we really need to worry about?
In 1793, with the United States of America less than 20 years old, a yellow fever epidemic decimates the capital city, Philadelphia, and shines a spotlight on stark racial and social inequalities.
In some countries, wearing masks against COVID-19 is not mandatory anymore, but can the rest of the world follow suit?
Attitudes towards vaccines are changing as Zimbabwe’s Apostolic Church members come to terms with COVID-19.
Death rates on the continent are higher than Asia, Europe, North America or South America, in large part because of a lack of resources and underuse of resources that do exist.
It's been argued that pandemics are the great leveller, but with COVID the opposite is true – and we can't afford to ignore it.
As Community Health Workers, Harriet Nankwanzi and Yusuf Maganda have built personal relationships with people in their communities who have over the years relied on their services to access vital health information.
In this pandemic, the income level of a country proved not to be a guarantee of an effective COVID-19 response; this analysis shows the key factors in a resilient health system to protect against future outbreaks.
Children have so far been able to evade the worst effects of COVID-19, but this could be changing as new variants and other factors seem to be putting more at risk.
Many countries are beginning to use wastewater monitoring to track COVID-19 outbreaks, but such sewage surveillance has a long history.
Health workers go above and beyond the call of duty to ensure that the children of Borno State, Nigeria, are vaccinated.
The pandemic is having an adverse effect on Malawi’s continued drive to provide all children with routine vaccines.
Although the world’s eyes are currently focused on COVID-19, a network of laboratories has been tracking the emergence and spread of a different virus for seven decades.
As COVAX vaccines reach the rural Batsumber in Mongolia, livestock herders hope that the loneliness of the pandemic era will soon come to an end.
The UBS Optimus Foundation has launched a campaign to help secure funding for the COVAX Advance Market Commitment. Vaccines Work spoke to Tom Hall, the UBS Head of Philanthropy Services to find out why.
Reports of fully vaccinated people getting infected with coronavirus shouldn't cause alarm.
With tourism hit hard by the pandemic, camel riders in Northern Kenya have repurposed their herds to help spread the word about COVID-19 vaccines, using traditional healers to gain trust in the community.
In an unprecedented show of global solidarity, the world came together to back COVAX, a unique global solution aimed at making equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines possible.
A COVAX Manufacturing Task Force has been established to identify and resolve issues impeding equitable access to vaccines.
App-assisted vaccinator training is an approach that shows promise, write the team who ran a Gavi-supported pilot to trial a new screen-based learning mechanism in India. What’s more, amid the pandemic, the flexibility of learning from home,…
It is the first vaccine developed by a non-Western country to be approved by the WHO, and is welcome at a time of global vaccine shortages.
Dr Berkley is recognised alongside other world-changing vaccine champions in this year’s list for their part in the fight against COVID-19.
After some initial hesitancy amongst health workers, Kenya has successfully rolled out the first batch of COVID-19 vaccine doses.
As the Spanish flu of 1918-1920 tore through America, a San Francisco mayor bet on the potential of face masks to contain the spread. Then, like today, the demand to mask up met resistance that blended distrust, ideology and gut feeling.
The indigenous people adopted measures that were more applicable to the challenges but also their reality. And I tried to illustrate that in my story.
Vaccination is likely to substantially reduce virus transmission by reducing the pool of people who become infected, and reducing virus levels in people who get infected.
Country and community perspectives on realising the targets of the Immunisation Agenda 2030.
Spread from rodents to humans, old and new world Hantavirus has become endemic in many continents, but are sporadic cases of person-to-person transmission strong enough evidence to fear its pandemic potential?
The Biden administration’s decision to stop opposing a proposed COVID-19 waiver of certain intellectual-property rights under World Trade Organization rules is a welcome move. But ending the pandemic also requires scaling up knowledge and…
The reasons why people may not take a COVID-19 vaccine even when offered can be complex and varied, but they point to the need to tackle them better if we are to improve vaccine coverage.
The pandemic has been tough for the 1.4 million Ugandans living with HIV, but the arrival of the COVID-19 vaccine has brought some welcome relief.
Increasing vaccination coverage by even 1% can save thousands of lives and millions of dollars in medical and economic costs.
The rollout of the first phase of the COVID-19 vaccination exercise has not been without its challenges but there is a focus on learning and improving.
As countries worldwide are suffering from COVID-19 vaccine shortages, sharing intellectual property and know-how, and easing trade bans on the export of raw materials, could ease supply bottlenecks.
Meningitis affects more than 30,000 people in Africa every year. Scientists use weather data to predict location and scale of impending cases. The prediction helps country-level health services to plan emergency responses.
Increasing skills and the availability of raw materials would be a bigger boost for vaccine production right now.
We cannot look back in the future and know we could have done more.
Even before SARS-CoV-2 swept around the world, scientists had been warning of the global threat posed by viruses like it. Although COVID-19 vaccines should help to end the current coronavirus pandemic, it is unlikely to be the last.
With 47 African countries now rolling out COVID-19 vaccines and over 17 million doses given on the continent, early insights from Africa’s largest-ever immunization drive offer hope, inspiration and early, yet vital lessons. Here, we shine a…
Investment in bedside oxygen production could make hospitals more resilient in the face of COVID-19.
Vaccines are one of our greatest success stories, but vaccination rates for many diseases have been stalling; this has been exacerbated with the disruption caused by Covid-19. Anna Mouser sets out the evidence on what works, and what doesn’t, for…
To reach zero-dose children in conflict states like South Sudan, social mobilisers like Nyok Daniel are crucial to winning the trust and support of local communities.
Climate change, changes in land use, recreational activities and the trade of infected animals could make this fatal disease more commonplace.
The impact of COVID-19 threatens to reverse hard-worn strides in global health. Without immediate investments, we will miss our chance to save lives and help countries recover from the pandemic and build the human capital needed for a resilient…
Although it is only natural and proper for governments to focus on vaccinating their citizens first, it is important not to lose sight of the big picture. The only way we can beat COVID-19 is to defeat it everywhere, and the best way to do that…
Trying to control a pandemic can feel like being in a warzone, yet even as we fight COVID-19 we still need to keep one eye on the future and potential emerging pandemics. Dr Velislava Petrova, senior manager in vaccine policy and investment at…
Distributing COVID-19 vaccines has been challenging, meaning in some cases vaccines are being delivered close to their expiration date; but the WHO is urging countries to hold on to the doses while it assesses whether shelf lives can be extended…
The signed advance purchase agreement (APA) is for up to 500 million doses of the COVID-19 vaccine manufactured by Moderna. Supply via the agreement will take place from the second half of 2021 through 2022, with options in place to address the…
Globally, antibiotic use in hospitals has surged since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and over-the-counter sales, legal in many countries, have soared. This is further fueling the global crisis of antimicrobial resistance, as bacteria evolve…
The Safo family, with a seven-year-old son with a number of medical conditions, know all too well what it’s like to have to readjust their lives and limits to accommodate a new reality. The delivery of Ghana’s first batch of COVID-19 vaccines by…
In pockets of vaccine resistance like Fauji Colony in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, children remain at risk of crippling polio. VaccinesWork meets the polio workers going door-to-door to change minds and protect children’s futures.
Like many potentially pandemic diseases, Lassa fever is spread by a virus carried by animals – in this case, rats – and in West Africa where it is endemic, it can be as dangerous as Ebola or COVID-19.
Often, crisis responses and emergency funding do not lead to significant structural changes because their goal is to provide immediate relief, not drive long-term shifts. Immediate crisis relief and long-term structural changes, however, can…
A new documentary tells a powerful tale of families overcoming every obstacle to protect their children from vaccine preventable disease.
Cameroonian health workers are going the distance to reach the remote Island of Manoka on a quest to ensure that no child is left behind.
In Uttar Pradesh, India, over 1,000 children die every day from preventable diseases. Gavi’s long-standing partnership with Unilever and Lifebuoy has helped to reach 2.5 million people with essential vaccines and soap, while also leveraging the…
There are a broad range of different types of vaccine, but one thing they usually have in common is that they are inherently biological. That means that often their ingredients need to be grown.
Vaccines save millions of lives a year, but what exactly is a vaccine and what goes into making one? And how do we know they are safe? Here, we talk about every aspect of vaccines and why they are so important for our health.
Meeting the recommended guidelines for physical activity reduces the risk of falling ill and dying of infectious diseases by 37%.
One-fifth of zero-dose children live in conflict settings. In South Sudan, Gavi has been working with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) to reach the children being left behind.
9.7 million children in 57 Gavi-supported countries remain unvaccinated and at risk. Why are these children missing out? In Bikaner, Rajasthan, VaccinesWork meets two families who simply never landed on the health system’s radar.
Stories of reaching herd immunity were certainly premature.
Why a 19th century portrait of three southern Indian noblewomen is “one of the most important scientific pictures in the history of medicine in India.”
Geneva/New York, 26 April 2021 – While immunization services have started to recover from disruptions caused by COVID-19, millions of children remain vulnerable to deadly diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF and Gavi, the Vaccine…
Despite decades of progress increasing access to immunisation in lower-income countries, nearly 10 million children still go without basic, routine vaccines every year. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is now focusing on reaching these zero-dose…
The R21/Matrix-M vaccine is the first to show promise of hitting the World Health Organisation’s target of 75% efficacy against malaria.
Today, to mark the first year of the creation of the Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator, President Emmanuel Macron announced that France has begun sharing vaccine doses with COVAX, starting with a first batch of 105,600 doses – with 500,…
Over half a million doses of COVID-19 vaccines arrived in Angola in March, delivered through the COVAX initiative. VaccinesWork talked to some of the first beneficiaries.
When the pandemic started, India defied expectations by having a milder outbreak than had been predicted. Now, it is seeing a deadly second wave that is bringing the country’s health system to its knees – so what is behind this, and how much is…
A deadly cousin of Ebola, Marburg can kill nine out of ten people it infects, and international travel has taken it from Africa to Europe twice in the past 40 years. Will increasing globalisation make this virus more likely to erupt around the…
Scientists who study the post-illness syndrome are taking a close look at patients’ reports of this unexpected benefit of the vaccine.
Óscar Gil Pereira is one of Angola’s most celebrated filmmakers. Last year he became one of the 24,000 people in Angola to contract COVID-19. After beating the disease, he is now vaccinated and committed to celebrating the health worker heroes…
The antiparasitic drug was thought to be a potential treatment for COVID-19, but there isn't sufficient evidence to recommend its use, despite widespread support online.
Vaccines contain active ingredients that trigger an immune response to viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. But in order to work well, it is important that they also contain other key ingredients to keep them safe and effective.
The prospect of recovery from the COVID-19 crisis makes it all the more urgent to have a firm vision of how the burden of public debt can be reduced once the coronavirus has been vanquished. For this reason, every country must work on itself and…
The pandemic has strained most countries’ health systems. Afghanistan has faced more hurdles than most.
We didn’t have to be stuck with needles.
Study suggests the risk of a serious brain clot is up to ten times higher in people with COVID-19 infections, compared to those receiving a COVID-19 vaccine.
COVAX has a critical role to play in ending the acute phase of the pandemic. The initiative could also be a model for how we address some of the most urgent development challenges of our time, from climate change to poverty reduction.
The delivery of vaccines has gone a long way to alleviating the fears and pressure on healthcare workers in Eswatini.
Millions of doses of COVID-19 vaccines are being delivered across the world, but what do we know about how long will immunity last?
New Covid-19 variants could potentially jeopardise a lot of the work that has been done so far to contain the pandemic. Sonia Gonçalves explains how genomic surveillance can help us track and contain them.
Communities often look to their traditional and religious leaders when it comes to advice on how to live. In Malawi, they are stepping to the fore.
Al-Shabaab has forced the shutdown of health facilities close to the Somalia border in Northern Kenya. A group of women activists are fighting back, ensuring COVID-19 vaccines reach the most vulnerable.
New research suggests people who exercise for 150 minutes a week are half as likely to die from COVID-19 compared to those who are consistently inactive.
Since the first consignment of COVAX doses arrived in Malawi in mid-March, vaccination centres like Chileka Health Centre, just outside Blantyre, have recorded enthusiastic turn-out.
Maternal health in low- and middle-income countries hit hard by COVID-19. Global review analysed stillbirth, maternal death rates from 17 countries. Maternity care must be prioritised during global health crisis, says report
The “One World Protected” Event, hosted today by the United States and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, launched a campaign to raise US$ 2 billion for the global fight against COVID-19.
As long as there have been vaccines, a vocal minority of public voices have made it their mission to rile up their communities against vaccination. In Montréal, in 1885, those voices were successful – and the results were deadly.
The delivery of COVID-19 vaccines to Eswatini through COVAX means the elderly now have the chance to protect themselves against the disease. VaccinesWork visits a vaccination session in Lobamba.
The seasons can affect transmission of the virus – but this will likely be dwarfed by the impact of public health measures.
Experience shows that innovative and evidence-based approaches, when executed well, can dent poverty. With the COVID-19 pandemic threatening to reverse hard-won global gains, the need for policy-relevant research, and for scaling effective…
Ending the COVID-19 crisis hinges on all countries being able to vaccinate their people. A lot goes into getting ready.
Over 50 health workers in Uganda have lost their lives to COVID-19 – a huge toll for a country with just 0.17 doctors per thousand people in some areas. With remaining health workers overworked and vulnerable, some relief has come in the form of…
At the turn of the 19th century, news of a 1796 medical breakthrough called 'vaccination' started to spread around the world. A fascinating recent book, War Against Smallpox by Michael Bennett, traces the subsequent dissemination of the actual…
Kigali – Forty-eight hours after Rwanda received shipments of COVID-19 vaccines, vaccinations began in earnest, with high-risk population given priority. The country plans to vaccinate a third of the population in 2021 and double that figure next…
New data shows that investing in getting that first vaccination to children can be a turning point in getting them fully immunised.
The study found people bounce back from their mental sluggishness soon after emerging from isolation.
To mark one year of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the articles that answer the most frequently asked questions about COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.
The COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest economic and social crisis of a lifetime. Human rights are key in shaping our collective pandemic response, both for the public health emergency and the broader impact on people’s lives and livelihoods.
The European Medicines Agency has concluded that there is a possible link between AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine and very rare blood clots. But what are these clots and how great is the risk?
In a huge country like Nigeria, ensuring the right people receive COVAX vaccines is not just a question of how, but where. Could geospatial technology, trialled during previous polio campaigns, make a difference?
A genetic trick called an integron plays an important role in helping bacteria do this.
Natural infection with the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 may not lead to long-lasting immunity, so it is important to get the vaccine as well.
The COVAX Facility has now delivered life-saving vaccines to over 100 economies since making its first international delivery to Ghana on February 24th.
As the 19th century entered its final quarter, “vaccination” meant one thing: immunisation with cowpox against deadly smallpox. By the end of the 20th century, safe and effective vaccines existed against 26 killer diseases. In the second part of…
Currently approved vaccines incorporate viral proteins or the instructions for making them, but they do not contain any live virus.
Immunization and vaccination experts from around the world outlined the current state of the world’s vaccination campaigns while addressing the urgent needs and concerns regarding public trust in the efficacy of vaccines; access and challenges.…
History tells us that the end of pandemics are rarely – if ever – neat, uncomplicated, or even easy to date.
In the 19th century, yellow fever had taken hold of parts of Europe and the USA, especially the Deep South, killing thousands. Now mostly in Africa and South America, this mosquito-borne disease could spread at any moment, threatening public…
As early as the 1500s, efforts to halt the spread of smallpox included risky procedures designed to trigger immunity. By the 1800s, these methods – collectively termed “variolation” – had been supplanted by the earliest example of a new, safer…
The increased use of disinfectants could allow for the development of bacterial strains which are resistant to disinfectants.
On 15 March 2020, Somalia received 300 000 doses of Oxford AstraZeneca vaccines from the COVAX Facility to protect frontline workers and elderly people with chronic health conditions from COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) hears…
In March, Mukami received her first COVAX vaccine dose. As a woman in her 60s living in Kenya, she has priority access to COVAX vaccines, alongside other high-risk groups like health care workers and people with underlying diseases. Here she…
On 22 March 2021, the world marked World Water Day, with the theme for this year’s celebration being “valuing water.” What can the long history of water’s connection with health teach us about its true value to the world?
Experts say there’s nothing new about the research underpinning the covid vaccines and that they were tested in more participants than many other approved vaccines.
Covid-19 vaccination efforts are picking up worldwide, bringing hopes of returning to a more normal life. Vaccines are now starting to reach countries across the globe through the COVAX initiative, set up to promote equitable access to vaccines…
What side are you on, paper or dryer? In either case, here's the bottom line on what to do after using the toilet.
By understanding the circumstances that make viral evolution more likely, we stand a better chance of staying a step ahead.
COVAX was designed to ensure the most vulnerable in every country get access to COVID-19 vaccines. But what about people in conflict zones or humanitarian settings that can’t be reached by government vaccination campaigns? Last week Gavi approved…
The key insights from the assessments to date present a high-level snapshot of country readiness to deploy COVID-19 vaccines based on initial findings from ongoing assessments in 128 countries.
To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most read articles on diseases other than COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.
As more and more people get vaccinated against COVID-19, some are worrying about how ‘normal’ their side effects are. Here’s what you need to know.
Instead of working to make vaccines against each unique coronavirus or variant, what if we could provide broad protection across the field through an all-in-one coronavirus shot?
The virtual event will bring together world leaders, the private sector, civil society, and key technical partners to galvanize resources and commitment to the Gavi COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC).
Wuhan investigation points to wildlife as likely source of COVID-19. Climate change and illegal trade are increasing risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Wildlife protection, surveillance of zoonosis are key to early detection of ‘spillover…
Ghana became the first African country to receive vaccines through the COVAX initiative in February. Meet one of the nurses spearheading the vaccination effort.
More than 100 years after the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic, type A influenza virus not only poses one of the largest threats to the modern world, but the risk of spill-over of avian influenza from poultry to humans is growing.
For one year, 600 people tracked 20 types of coronavirus restriction in 186 countries – here's what they found out.
Whilst COVID-19 caught the world off guard, the speed at which it spread and the extent of its impact on people’s lives came as a great shock to most. However, some were not surprised at all.
Ghana became the first African country to receive COVAX doses in February, kicking off a mammoth logistical effort in the country to get these doses to the frontline workers that need them. #VaccinesWork spoke to the cold chain experts making it…
The continent had a milder first wave than the rest of the world, but research suggests that relaxed public health measures led to the coronavirus rebounding with a vengeance the second time around.
To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most-read articles on how countries have been navigating COVID-19 during an unprecedentedly challenging year for global health.
The Covid-19 pandemic is global, and to bring the pandemic to a close, a collaborative, global approach is needed. But why is it so important that all countries have access to vaccines as soon as possible?
These results can help allay previous concerns in Europe about a lack of trial data for older people.
There are several COVID-19 vaccines being used around the world, but all need to be injected and some need ultra-cold refrigeration. Could next-generation intranasal vaccines be a quicker and easier way of protecting ourselves?
Tuberculosis kills millions of people each year, but several recent advances in vaccine development are providing fresh hope.
The tiger mosquito that carries the chikungunya virus is now moving into new habitats in Europe and America thanks to climate change. This means the once tropical disease could soon become a global pandemic threat.
The global response to the coronavirus pandemic, for all its flaws, has yielded impressive results by ignoring traditional bureaucratic and sectoral silos. That should spur us to raise our ambitions for global public health, with an emphasis on…
The virus appears to attack support cells at the back of the nose, but “smell training” may help people to recover their missing sense.
Accra, 18 March 2021 – COVID-19 vaccination in Africa is gathering pace, with more than 7 million doses so far administered. But the continent received vaccines later than other regions of the world and in limited quantity. A few weeks after…
Community vaccinators go where fixed health centres can’t reach. In Afghanistan, that means fighting Taliban injunctions, entrenched gender imbalances and difficult terrain, all to ensure the nation’s children are protected.
Time to get vaccinated!
In today’s blog post, we’re featuring a fierce and passionate female WASH advocate from Nigeria. Tariah Adams, a Senior Communications and Advocacy Officer for White Ribbon Alliance Nigeria and campaign mobilizer, she has a personal interest in…
At the end of the year 2019, we created an elaborate 2020 plan for our projects at Beyond the Classroom Foundation. As we got closer to our second project scheduled for the end of March, the government imposed a lockdown, banning all public…
Unlike traditional security threats, infectious disease can’t be solved through sanctions, military posturing, deterrence or bilateral diplomacy, but rather through scientific collaboration, long-term investments in global health and resilient…
Ebola has so far only affected African countries, and occasional cases outside of the continent have been rapidly contained. But the virus could mutate to spread more easily between people, making it more of a pandemic threat.
To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most read articles on COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.
So far, homeschooling has been trial and error because it’s difficult to keep the twins calm and engaged for long periods of time. We have no fixed curriculum and use online educational programs as a guide.
The COVID-19 pandemic wasn’t the first to devastate the world and it won’t be the last. In a new series, we round up emerging infectious threats that have the potential to erupt into global pandemics.
After a difficult year, the vaccination roll-out is underway at Ghana’s premier medical facility, where health workers dare to hope that things can go back to normal.
John Nkengasong is the Director of the Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is also the WHO special envoy for Africa. John spoke to CovidHQAfrica desk about a range of issues including his vision for the vaccines in Africa, and…
COVID-19 has demonstrated that viruses not only know no borders, but they also do not discriminate based on immigration status. Failing to take migrants into account in our vaccination efforts would hamper the effectiveness of these campaigns and…
To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most read articles on COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.
Sales of medical devices that measure the oxygen saturation of blood are booming thanks to the COVID-19 pandemic. But are they worth the investment?
Genetic sequencing has linked the recent outbreak of Ebola disease to a survivor of the 2014-16 West Africa epidemic, meaning the virus could have laid dormant in one survivor for over five years. What does this mean for our efforts to control…
Abuja, 12 March 2021 – As the second wave of COVID-19 affects the global health and economic community, the World Health Organization (WHO) is supporting government to engage strategic stakeholders as part of concerted efforts to reverse the…
With the historic global roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines in full swing, bottlenecks in the supply chain are inevitable as manufacturing output tries to keep pace with demand. A manufacturing supply chain summit last week outlined potential…
An army of volunteers help people who otherwise would have had difficulty securing a covid vaccination because of cumbersome computer or telephone registration systems.
Various countries have halted the use of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, while reports of blood clots are investigated. Here’s what we know so far.
For anyone who has worked on crop improvement in Africa over the last three decades, the flood of misinformation around vaccines evokes an eerie sense of déjà vu.
Nipah virus can kill as many as three out of four people it infects. Since the fruit bat that carries the virus often comes into contact with humans, here we explain why the development of drugs and vaccines for the disease is becoming…
Our immune systems are supposed to defend us from invading pathogens but, in the case of COVID-19, an immune overreaction may be to blame for severe illness.
Dr Paul Garner, a British infectious disease expert at the UK’s Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine caught COVID-19 early in 2020, and then developed Long COVID. Here, he talks frankly with Gavi about his experiences, how he recovered and how…
COVID-19 vaccine testing on children is just getting started, and only in adolescents.
The virus is always present in nature and when circumstances allow, it may jump from one species to another.
Since COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, many countries around the world imposed some form of quarantine to control its spread. What can the history of quarantine teach us about isolation and lockdowns now?
Researchers identify bacterial variants that may be evolving resistance to antimicrobials and vaccines.
Vivianne Ihekweazu (Lead writer): On the day marking one year since the first COVID-19 case was reported in Nigeria, this article reflects on the experience and lessons learnt from the Honourable Commissioner for Health, Dr. Tomi Coker as she led…
Overall efficacy is just one metric.
For the people of Lahaul, the opening of a new high-altitude tunnel ends years of wintertime isolation – and opens a vital route of access for COVID-19 vaccines.
Stockpiles of this vaccine are going unused in France and Germany, and unfounded criticism of it may be partly to blame.
This is the third in a three-part series highlighting key lessons learned since the launch, four years ago, of the Cold Chain Equipment Optimization Platform (CCEOP), established by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to ensure optimal cold chain…
This is the second in a three-part series highlighting key lessons learned since the launch, four years ago, of the Cold Chain Equipment Optimization Platform (CCEOP), established by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to ensure optimal cold chain…
Global Health 50/50 Index places Gavi among the top 5% of organisations that are active in global health.
Leaders in global health have been working on COVAX – a global initiative to ensure the fair distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. Some of the top jobs are held by a diverse group of women, so in honour of International Women's Day we'd like to…
For this year's International Women's Day VaccinesWork has interviewed a number of women leaders and front line workers who represent this year's IWD theme: #ChooseToChallenge
This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Nighat Rani, a vaccinator in Pakistan, shows how her work rests on a bedrock of female empathy and understanding…
This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Professor Chizoba Wonodi, Founder of Women Advocates for Vaccine Access in Nigeria and Country Director at the…
This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Professor Quarraisha Abdool Karim, epidemiologist and associate scientific director for CAPRISA – the Centre for…
This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Professor Heidi Larson, Founding Director of the Vaccine Confidence Project, explains how gender can affect…
This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Rathnamma P, an 'ASHA' in Bengaluru, India, explains how the country's army of one million female community health…
This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Anuradha Gupta, Gavi’s Deputy CEO, explains what ‘choose to challenge’ – this year’s IWD theme – means to her.
To make the world safe from COVID-19, we need everyone vaccinated, including children. To get back to normality, we also need vaccinated adults, ongoing safety measures, safe re-opening of schools, access to all recommended vaccines – and…
As political and public health leaders across the world work to encourage people to get vaccinated against COVID-19, what can they learn from the King of Rock ‘n’ Roll getting jabbed?
Reaching the goals of the plan requires the best possible interaction between public and private -for profit and not-for-profit - healthcare sectors.
The first deliveries of up to 2.5 million doses of COVAX vaccines by autonomous drone began this week in Ghana.
Several vaccines that have become available have shown different levels of efficacy. So what is vaccine efficacy? Dr Lee Hampton, a paediatrician and medical epidemiologist with Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, explains.
A vaccine that apparently protects animals against multiple strains of flu has been created by tethering a relatively unchanging part of the surface proteins found on the virus to nanoparticles.
As more COVID-19 vaccines become available, countries the world over are now faced with the daunting task of carrying out mass vaccinations. Here, one expert explains how her organisation is supporting rollouts in the US and offers insights into…
Most people have been doing everything they can to avoid getting COVID-19, but in the coming days British history student Jacob Hopkins has chosen to be deliberately infected with SARS-CoV-2 as part of the world’s first Challenge Trial. He…
Real-world studies of vaccines aren't directly comparable with clinical trials, but their results are still good news.
COVID-19 cases are falling week on week, so can we allow ourselves to be hopeful?
COVID-19 vaccination campaigns using COVAX-funded doses commenced today in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, the first global rollout.
This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines – from how they work and how they’re made to ensuring safety and equitable access – in WHO’s Vaccines Explained series.
Ghana is not only the first country to receive a shipment of COVAX vaccines, but it will be the first to broaden its reach by delivering them by drone. The new partnership with Zipline and UPS Foundation will see 2.5 million doses delivered this…
Even those that live in areas where the population has already been vaccinated would not be totally protected if the virus mutates elsewhere.
The first in a three-part series of blogs highlighting key lessons learned since the launch, four years ago, of the Cold Chain Equipment Optimization Platform (CCEOP), established by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to ensure optimal cold chain…
Roald Dahl's daughter Olivia died of measles aged seven.
Minor side effects are a normal sign that the immune system is mounting a protective response following vaccination, although they aren’t universal.
Countries in the West Africa region are in a very different position to seven years ago. They now have the experience of the past as well as new tools to tackle Ebola.
Vaccine data from Scotland provides reassurance that the Oxford-AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines will significantly reduce hospitalisations and deaths from COVID-19 among older people after the first dose.
The continent is one of the most experienced regions in the world in dealing with disease outbreaks.
Maintaining antibodies in the blood requires creating certain long-lasting immune cells – but this doesn't always happen.
The pandemic won’t last forever, but the virus that causes COVID-19 might. Here we look at what we can expect over the next couple of years in a Q&A with Dr Lee Hampton, pediatrician and medical epidemiologist at Gavi.
The tracking of antibodies in Ebola survivors suggests they wax and wane, which could make vaccine booster shots necessary.
Saving the planet from catastrophic climate change will require not only a dramatic increase in funding for clean-energy research and development. We need innovation in policy just as much as in technology.
The world's most advanced economies will incur half the total costs associated with a failure to vaccinate poorer nations, which could exceed $4 trillion if only half their citizens are inoculated.
With three major coronavirus outbreaks in the last two decades – first SARS-CoV, then MERS-CoV, and now SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 – another outbreak is inevitable. Scientists are calling for the world to step up the search for a universal…
A new trial about to start in the UK will deliberately infect people with the virus that causes COVID-19 – if we have vaccines already, why do we need this?
If we are to minimize the impact of future disease outbreaks, we must recognize the importance of immunization and invest in preemptive vaccine development, writes Tim Keys.
As wearing face masks in public becomes the new normal across the world, what can we learn from a country like Japan, where this has been a long-established practice?
The global effort to contain COVID-19 risks disrupting campaigns against other diseases. Will the fight to control the deadly rabies virus in India be among them?
The World Health Organization has given the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine an Emergency Use Listing, passing an important milestone before the first delivery of COVAX vaccines worldwide.
The side effects of new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are a result of immune system activation. While uncomfortable, they are both normal and expected. They are a sign that the vaccine is working.
The G7 has an opportunity to demonstrate global leadership in the COVID-19 pandemic by making the success of the international COVAX vaccine-access facility its top priority. Global solidarity is not only morally right, but also offers the…
Unprecedented international cooperation and focus have led to multiple effective and safe Covid-19 vaccines in less than a year, and created a blueprint for future vaccine development. Here's how
COVID-19 deaths differ among men and women but the differences are not reported. A project is building sex-aggregated data on COVID-19 globally. Such data is key to developing effective solutions to fight COVID-19.
It’s totally normal to experience side effects from COVID-19 vaccines. Here’s what you need to know.
Guinea is having its first Ebola outbreak since 2016, when West Africa experienced the biggest outbreak ever seen. Could the vaccine that contained previous outbreaks soon be redeployed?
Geneva / New York / Oslo – 15 February 2021 The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), as co-leads of the COVAX initiative for equitable global access to…
With the first Covid-19 vaccines in short supply, how do governments decide who gets a vaccine first?
A new study suggests that historical traumas from the French colonial era may be associated with less trust in modern medicine and lower vaccination rates today.
Clinically significant SARS-CoV-2 variants are likely to be here to stay, but multiple COVID-19 vaccines still have a role to play.
In Tanzania, the Ocean Road Cancer Institute is doing its part to ensure that people across the country can receive cancer treatment and care, regardless of their ability to pay.
Gavi’s CEO explains how the COVAX Advance Market Commitment mechanism will make COVID-19 vaccines available to lower-income countries.
Maina Modu is the programme manager for Routine Immunisation in Borno State, working with the State Primary Health Care Development Agency (SPHCDA). He coordinates the state emergency routine immunisation coordination centre activities.
The choice facing world leaders is simple: act now to tackle the hunger crisis, or pay a much higher price later. Immediate action will be cheaper and save more lives than responding only after multiple famines have taken hold and a generation’s…
As the pandemic brings long-standing health disparities into sharper view, community health workers are coming to the forefront in the public health response. This fast-growing workforce help fill the gaps between health care providers and low-…
By building on the lessons learned in 2020, it should be possible in the long term to compress vaccine development timelines still further. That would allow healthcare systems to stamp out disease outbreaks much earlier and save many more lives…
Oxford scientists are already working on an updated version of their COVID-19 vaccine to ensure people remain fully protected against new variants of SARS-CoV-2. But how would these be delivered and how often would they be needed?
The recommendations offer reassurance amid concern over whether some vaccines are as effective against new variants.
Antibiotic resistance has been a slow-growing scourge, fueled in part by relatively weak political support for implementing national action plans and surveillance systems. Because the problem is essentially the result of multiple systems failures…
In Islamabad’s slums, Gavi-supported Civil Society Human and Institutional Development Programme is ensuring that parents know that their children can be vaccinated safely by following COVID-19 guidelines.
In Pakistan, a life-saving game of immunisation catch-up is underway after the COVID-19 emergency forced over a million children to miss out on routine vaccinations.
Contaminated doorknobs and packaging probably aren’t the main way the coronavirus spreads. But don’t throw away the hand gel and cleaning products just yet.
The coronavirus is evolving, but which path it will take is far from certain.
Smallpox was one of the deadliest diseases in the world, but it’s the only one in history to have been eradicated globally. One Somali man sat on the frontline of this effort and can inspire the world today as we battle yet another devastating…
While vaccines are the safest way to prevent the spread of infectious disease, a tiny proportion of those vaccinated may experience an adverse event. Here, we explain how often this happens and why.
Antimicrobial resistance was already a major global health threat, but now the potential increase in the use of antibiotics in response to the pandemic could exacerbate the problem and threaten a potentially even bigger global crisis.
Face coverings have become a standard feature of pandemic life, but which mask is best for everyday use, and how should you take care of it?
The medical and moral imperative for equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines is why COVAX was created. Co-led by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, together with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (…
Researchers are already working to improve the current crop of mRNA vaccines. Hopefully this will help them become more practical and affordable for the entire world, not just first-world countries.
Pandemic restrictions and wider use of flu vaccines may have explained 2020’s record low cases of seasonal flu, but will the picture look like in tropical countries with year-round flu?
The emergence of variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, serve as a powerful reminder that viruses by their very nature mutate, and that the scientific response may need to adapt if they are to remain effective against them.
Research suggesting that one of the COVID-19 vaccines provides only minimal protection against mild-moderate infection caused by the 501.Y.V2 variant has raised concerns. But this doesn’t mean it won’t prevent severe disease and deaths.
Global access to HPV vaccine is vital, particularly in lower-income countries. Lessons learned from HPV roll-out could boost uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.
Efficacy rates for COVID-19 vaccines are higher than many scientists had dared dream of, but even if they prove less effective in real life, or in the face of new variants, they could still unlock normal life.
The currently available coronavirus vaccines have been tested on adults of various ages, as well as those with long-term conditions, and appear to be safe. But there are a few groups who should avoid being vaccinated for now.
Scientists wanted to find out about the long-term effect of measles on the immune system. Scientific article for students.
Several COVID-19 vaccines may have now demonstrated their ability to prevent disease, but it was still not clear whether any could stop the virus being passed on. Now however a preliminary study suggests that some might also be able to reduce…
As World Cancer Day approaches amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, it’s now more important than ever to ensure continued access to HPV vaccines to eliminate cervical cancer around the world.
Dr. De Sousa has spent more than twenty years charting the highs and lows of polio eradication in Angola.
Given the speed at which COVID-19 vaccines have been developed, it is understandable that people want to know whether they are safe. So what measures have been put in place to ensure the safety of these new vaccines?
The single-dose vaccine showed promising results in preliminary data from a phase 3 clinical trial.
Punjab province introduces typhoid conjugate vaccine, taking the next step in protecting children from typhoid in Pakistan.
A system originally designed to do real-time monitoring of vaccine supply chains in India has now been adapted to help ensure COVID-19 vaccines reach as many people as possible.
The results indicate that the vaccine efficacy in the UK was 89% for individuals who received at least two doses of vaccine. In South Africa, the vaccine efficacy was 60% in people without HIV.
Geneva/Oslo/New York, 3 February 2021 – The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the World Health Organisation, as co-leads of the COVAX initiative for equitable global access to COVID-19 vaccines…
With the World Health Organization inviting COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers to submit their candidates for evaluation, we examine the process from submission to Emergency Use Listing.
Manaus variant spreads faster and could carry higher risk of infection. Researchers believe new variant spread from Brazil to Asia. Fast, widespread vaccination is best way to slow down mutations.
When getting vaccinated against covid-19, there’s no sense being picky. You should take the first authorized vaccine that’s offered, experts say.
Irene Baker* is a care assistant at a psychiatric hospital in England. She describes the challenges of caring for mentally ill patients during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.
A biologist explains what proteins do in viruses, how they interact with human cells, how the vaccine delivers mRNA into the cell and how antibodies protect us.
In a special one-off interview, PolioNews (PN) talks to both Aidan O’Leary (A-O’L) and Michel Zaffran (MZ) about the future of polio eradication.
Pfizer and Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine candidates have turned the vaccine cold chain into hot news. But what is a cold chain? How does it work? And what does it have to do with equity?
We've gone from a novel virus to several COVID-19 vaccines in less than a year. Here's what we've learned from earlier vaccines to allow this to happen.
COVAX is forecasting it will roll out over 2 billion COVID-19 vaccine doses in 2021. What does that mean for the world’s poorest countries?
The world’s most comprehensive study reveals all! A new study looking at the impact of vaccinations in 98 countries over the past 20 years concludes that 37 million people are alive today thanks to vaccines.
Scientists are working to understand what mutations of the virus mean for inoculation strategies.
Australia is set to get the green light to roll out the Pfizer vaccine any day now. There is a complex process behind this.
To achieve universal sanitation, we need greater investment and higher rates of sanitation coverage.
New research adds to the argument that the global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines is the most optimal solution for a global economic recovery.
Don't panic if a second dose isn't available exactly when you need it.
In Zimbabwe, Friendship Bench, a community-based approach is providing solutions to people struggling with their mental health during this pandemic.
If vaccine efficacy can’t be assessed through placebo-controlled trials in future, how can we know if they are effective?
The initial concern that nervousness over the new vaccines would slow uptake doesn’t seem to have become a reality in the early days of COVID-19 immunisation, although it will be critical to maintain vaccine confidence suggests an Ipsos poll.
Scientists have observed that 501Y.V2 has quickly become "dominant" among multiple variants that have been circulating in the South African population.
It’s time-consuming but worthwhile: Residents respond to messages about Covid testing and vaccines when outreach teams speak their language and make a personal connection.
Zambian data challenges the assumption African populations may have been spared from COVID-19.
Will these rapid tests really allow us to lower our guard during the pandemic?
Without a vaccine, the worldwide economic impact of COVID-19 would have been $3.4 trillion a year. But even with a COVID-19 vaccine, unequal allocation could cost the global economy up to $1.2 trillion a year in GDP.
COVID-19 is deepening global food insecurity, as the pandemic’s economic impact adds to existing challenges.
Vaccines that use harmless viruses as a delivery mechanism are vulnerable to being attacked by our immune system – but experimenting with how they are given could get around this.
A medical professor explains the reasoning behind the delay in the UK and what impact this might have on the vaccine's effectiveness.
COVAX announced the signing of an advance purchase agreement for up to 40 million doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; rollout to commence with successful execution of supply agreements.
Some people continue to shed viral RNA for weeks or months after developing COVID-19. Could persistent pockets of infection be to blame?
New review of evidence on a single-dose HPV vaccination schedule is published by PATH-led consortium.
African leaders can make strategies to fight COVID-19 more accessible to the people.
Immunity to most coronaviruses is short-lived, but will the same hold true for the virus that causes COVID-19 or vaccines against it?
Health workers take COVID-19 precautions to deliver polio drops.
In the United States and some other countries, members of disadvantaged racial and ethnic minorities have a lower-than-average life expectancy, and therefore are under-represented among those most likely to die from COVID-19. How should…
Vaccination, face coverings and physical distancing are essential parts of a team effort against the coronavirus.
Young volunteers gain new skills and give back to their communities.
New variants will push the number needed to reach herd immunity up.
New variants of the coronavirus are causing alarm across the UK and South Africa, with many countries closing their borders to travellers from these countries. But what effect could new strains have on our ability to control the pandemic?
Western Equatoria Ministry of Health and UNICEF are preparing for COVID-19 vaccination campaigns.
How two effective vaccines on the market make it so much harder to quickly test any competing vaccines.
In Cameroon’s Marua region, the pandemic means farmers are now faced with the double challenge of using what limited water resources they have to grow crops while saving lives through handwashing.
Taking a wait-and-see approach to COVID-19 vaccines could lead to only pockets of the population being protected. Will this be enough to end the pandemic?
What normally takes decades has been achieved in 12 months, without cutting corners.
As participating countries look towards receiving their first batch of COVID-19 vaccines through the COVAX Facility, we examine how South Africa is ramping up its readiness.
Covid-19 has changed the world of vaccines, but that doesn't mean all diseases will get treatments as quickly.
As at January 12, 2021, Nigeria has had over a hundred thousand confirmed cases of the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. The pandemic has continued to challenge healthcare system...
As long as humans encroach on nature, pandemics are inevitable — making it important to concentrate resources in areas where people and wildlife are linked.
We’ve always been able to adapt vaccines to protect against emerging variants and additional pathogen strains, but new vaccine platforms could make this even easier.
On 8 January, Derrick C became one of the first people in the UK to receive his second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, three weeks after the first dose. Here we ask him what that was like.
As a Gavi-funded emergency stockpile of Ebola vaccines becomes accessible, we look at the ultra-cold chain equipment used to keep these vaccines at the right temperature.
Answering this question will take us one step closer to our new normal.
How resistance to drugs originates, and why it's different for vaccines.
Lockdowns are an effective way of reducing COVID-19 infections, but they could take a more general toll on our health if we allow them to.
Long-term protection will depend on the 'memory response' developed by our immune systems – and the initial signs are promising.
COVID-19 vaccines are set to become the quickest vaccines in history to go from initial trials to rollout, but what lessons can we learn from its speedy predecessor: the Ebola vaccine?
While some of the world's richest and most technologically advanced countries have struggled to contain the spread and morbidity of COVID-19, Rwanda has set a shining example of how to manage a pandemic and safeguard public health. Chief among…
From Liability Laws to Production Delays, the 2009 H1N1 Swine Flu Vaccine Rollout Offers a Cautionary Tale for Today.
Sterilising immunity means that the immune system is able to completely prevent a virus from replicating in your body. Not all vaccines provide this.
Vaccinators tackle winter conditions and challenging contexts during Afghanistan’s last polio campaign of the year.
In March 2020, as soon as the first cases of COVID-19 were detected in Kyrgyzstan, a state of emergency was declared, and the country went into lockdown.
For all of the good news about the arrival of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines, the hard truth for the coming year is that global demand will outpace supply. Without a multilateral agreement to allocate doses globally, the road to recovery…
Uncertainty in the availability of vaccine doses is prompting some countries to consider altering dosing schedules, or mixing different vaccine types. How could this impact the effectiveness of vaccines?
We believe the best way to address misconceptions is to arm yourself with the facts and have a few key points and statistics. Here’s our list of facts to combat common misinformation.
Here's what we still need to find out before we can know when we'll be able to return to our pre-coronavirus ways.
In less than a year, the world has come together to develop effective COVID-19 vaccines and a multilateral platform for allocating them most efficiently around the world. But with the risk of vaccine nationalism still looming large, now is the…
Viruses are constantly mutating and often this process does not have any impact on the risk they pose to humans. However, occasionally mutations can occur which make it easier for viruses to infect us, or which could render vaccines against them…
Long-lasting symptoms appear unrelated to how bad your infection was, though women appear more affected than men.
Answers to the most common questions about coronavirus vaccine development.
Managers owe it to their employees to stop treating work from home like a luxury. The office wasn’t invited into the home. It turned up like an unexpected guest – and it shows few signs of leaving soon.
Whole virus vaccines use a weakened or deactivated version of the disease-causing virus to trigger protective immunity against it.
The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Covid-19 vaccines are more than 90% effective, as reported in phase III clinical trials – and the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is the first Covid-19 vaccine to be licensed.
Viral vector-based vaccines use a harmless virus to smuggle the instructions for making antigens from the disease-causing virus into cells, triggering protective immunity against it.
Despite huge advancements in the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS in recent decades, an effective vaccine remains elusive – and is desperately needed to end the global pandemic that kills more than 700,000 people each year.
Antibodies that go rogue and attack healthy tissue identified in patients with severe COVID.
Protein subunit vaccines use fragments of protein from the disease-causing virus to trigger protective immunity against it.
Reflections on 2020 from Dr Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
Nucleic acid vaccines use genetic material from a disease-causing virus to trigger protective immunity against it.
In August 2020, Nigeria became the last African country to be declared free from wild poliovirus.
Well-designed communication can increase healthy behaviours, including vaccine uptake. Here are our top five mantras for how to think about COVID-19 vaccine communication.
Kenya marked its 1st anniversary of the launch of the pilot in September, with more than 128,000 children reached with vaccine, and one country health official expressing “a great sense of pride” in being part of the effort to protect children…
Before any COVID-19 vaccines can be delivered to the public, their use must be approved by national regulatory authorities. We look into the process before vaccines would be approved for distribution and use in Nigeria and South Africa.
To combat vaccine misinformation at home and around the globe, we must build trust.
Now that the first COVID-19 vaccine has been approved, and others are on the way, what does getting vaccinated actually involve? Here are some of the logistics involved and what to expect after you’ve had your vaccine.
The fight against COVID-19 has seen vaccine development move at record speed, with more than 170 different vaccines in trials. But how are they different from each other and how will they protect us against the disease?
The COVAX Facility plans to start rolling out the doses in early 2021 to high-risk groups in participating countries, with the aim of vaccinating up to 20% of populations of participating countries by the end of the year.
As we prepare for one of the world’s largest vaccination efforts, and on the occasion of International Migrants Day, we are coming to a critical reckoning: the need for inclusive approaches in our health-related thinking and practices has never…
Viruses mutate all the time, but this new mutation affects the viral protein that invades human cells. What does this mean for the pandemic and the vaccine?
Vaccines have been approved – so why are we still developing others?
The COVID-19 vaccines currently rolling off production lines have been developed faster than any other vaccine against a new disease in history. How have scientists achieved this incredible feat? And could the lessons learned enable more rapid…
The best way we can prevent flu infection is by getting vaccinated. The problem with the flu vaccine is that in some years it doesn’t work as well as others.
Coronavirus can survive on surfaces, so should unwrapping presents be considered risky? We examine the evidence.
A second typhoid conjugate vaccine has achieved WHO prequalification and others are in development. More vaccines will help increase access to TCVs.
12 charts provide an overview of our research in the face of a truly unprecedented crisis.
Some of the COVID-19 vaccines use messenger RNA to provoke an immune response. But what exactly is this genetic material, and how does it interact with the DNA in our cells?
As the new COVID-19 vaccines begin to ship out, how ready are health systems to manage delivery? Here are four ways countries should frame that question.
New girl-centered toolkit helps health officials develop and implement communications campaigns that resonate with girls in their countries.
Community mobilizers inform and prepare communities for vaccinators.
COVID-19-related restrictions differ from country to country, but as families gather to celebrate during the festive holidays there are some important things you can do to protect yourselves and your loved ones against coronavirus.
Here’s why continuing to physically distance and wear masks is vital until we can be sure how long vaccine-acquired immunity lasts.
Some people respond strongly to perceived threats to their freedom and push back – others are simply more accepting of risk.
A series of science articles adapted for children’s education, in partnership with the WHO.
Preparing African countries for COVID-19 vaccines will require thoughtful planning and unprecedented coordination across a wide-range of stakeholders.
We need more data on the low-dose, high-dose regimen used in one arm of the trial, which may make the vaccine more effective.
Restaurants, gyms and religious establishments appear to account for most coronavirus infections in US cities, but new analysis suggests there are strategies which can reduce the risks.
Like patients with long COVID, some Ebola survivors have lingering symptoms which can make it difficult to work or function in everyday life. Dr Janet Scott has been studying these survivors, and now also has her sights on COVID-19. She tells us…
What if I’ve already had COVID – do I still need a vaccine?
Some countries may stop their vaccination programs for a while to reduce the risk of spreading COVID-19. But which is better: fewer coronavirus infections or making sure children get all their usual vaccinations?
Without a greater focus on the gender dynamics of the COVID-19 crisis, women and girls will suffer long-term handicaps that constrain their economic prospects for years to come, if not permanently. We already know enough about the pandemic's…
At this crucial moment for immunisation, considering community perceptions of vaccination has never been more important.
Not even the COVID-19 pandemic will stop them.
Janet, mother of twins, tells fellow mothers.
Most vaccines are given to healthy people to prevent infection with a disease-causing organism, but sometimes vaccines are used to fight an existing infection or illness. Such ‘therapeutic’ vaccines are being developed for numerous illnesses,…
As companies race to develop COVID-19 vaccines, some development processes have been run in parallel to stop the pandemic as quickly as possible. Yet safety remains paramount; now that we are on the brink of rolling out some of the vaccines that…