The COVID-19 pandemic has meant that as a species we have collectively gone into a form of flight-or-fight mode, an evolutionary self-defence mechanism that can kick in when faced with a crisis. But what happens when that crisis lasts for months with no end in sight? For many, this protracted emergency is resulting in pandemic fatigue. But what does that mean exactly, and could it breed a form of complacency that could spell trouble for the fight against COVID-19 in 2021?

1. Pandemic fatigue should not be confused with post-COVID-fatigue

Many people who have had even mild cases of COVID-19 can have post-viral fatigue that can last for months or even years. This can include feeling constantly tired, with aching muscles and brain fog. Instead, pandemic fatigue refers to feeling overwhelmed with still having to maintain a state of constant vigilance, in this case six months after the pandemic started, and a weariness to abide by restrictions.

2. Collateral damage from the pandemic

COVID-19 has infected more than 30 million people and killed nearly one million. These numbers seemed unthinkable at the start of the pandemic, but we are now having to accept that the numbers are likely to continue to rise especially as some countries start to enter their second wave of infections. This alone will exert a huge toll on human health. But the collateral damage is devastating too; the loss of incomes, the closure of entire swathes of community services and a lack of access to non-COVID-19 health services, including routine immunisation, is causing widespread insecurity and uncertainty about both the present and the future.

3. Mental health challenges

This emotional overwhelm can understandably lead to or exacerbate mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Health experts around the world have warned of a rise in the need for mental health services, which in the UK has been estimated at a 20% increase. A study in April this year looking at mental distress in more than 2,000 Americans indicated that 28% showed signs of serious mental illness compared with 3.4 in a similar survey in 2018. Young adults (18-44 years) showed the biggest downward change, and they were ten times more likely to have mental health issues.

4. The lingering effects of lockdown

Even for people who have not developed mental health problems, the weeks of lockdown and restrictions that millions went through brought emotional and psychological challenges that few had ever experienced. For many, those stresses may have lifted when lockdown eased, with schools and offices re-opening along with restaurants and gyms. Yet countries, such as Spain and the UK, are potentially facing new restrictions that might include another lockdown. Israel just went back into its second lockdown as it has one of the highest COVID-19 infection rates in the world. It’s unclear how people will cope with a second lockdown. In many low- and middle-income countries lockdown has proven disastrous. In India, 400 million workers in the informal sector - 80% of India’s non-agricultural workforce - are now at risk of falling into poverty as a result of the crisis.

5. Complacency about wearing masks and physical distancing

Although face-coverings and physical distancing is still mandatory in public spaces in most countries, there are many reports of people either not wearing masks or wearing them ineffectively. Equally, despite pavements and floors in shops and airports painted to indicate the distance that people should keep apart, often they are not heeded. Yet masks are unlikely to go away as a disease prevention tool for COVID-19, and moreover there is evidence that countries that introduced masks early on had milder epidemics. People in countries where the pandemic has yet to fully take-off, may also be complacent in continuing to comply with restrictions, in the believe that the threat is over.

6. The risk of re-infection in people who have had COVID-19

People who have had COVID-19 and have antibodies may feel that they are fairly well protected as they may have natural immunity to further infections. Yet natural immunity may not last long and there are documented cases of re-infection, sometimes leading to asymptomatic disease, but occasionally sending the person into intensive care. Some scientists believe that when a person is re-infected, they are protected by their antibodies from severe disease. But so far, it’s not clear how long antibodies last for, which also has implications for vaccine development.

7. Confusion over COVID-19 restrictions

Some pandemic fatigue seems to be caused by conflicting public health messaging in many countries. During lockdown, the rules in some countries were so strict that they were fairly unambiguous. Now, after the easing of lockdowns in many places, some countries are reintroducing restrictions of varying levels following rising numbers of cases. These constantly changing measures can cause confusion over what people should and shouldn’t do, for example, how schools should respond to students testing positive for COVID-19 or differences in messaging between local and national governments.

8. Misinformation and why people still don’t believe COVID-19 is a threat

An infodemic of misinformation about COVID-19 has threatened the COVID-19 response since the start of the pandemic. This includes false claims that it would be better to get the virus (in the belief that antibodies would then protect against further infection), that the disease is not as bad as people have been led to believe or even whether or not the virus is real. All of this can not only put people at risk by not following guidance such as wearing masks, but it can also put more vulnerable people in society at risk, as well as encouraging the spread of non-scientific information.

9. Failing to learn lessons can be disastrous for the future

Even when we are past the acute phase of this COVID-19 crisis, pandemic fatigue could threaten future disease prevention. Just three years after the H1N1 flu pandemic, World Health Organization (WHO) officials noted that health experts were unwilling to analyse it anymore to influence future pandemic planning, and were keen to move on. Yet such guidance based on lessons learned can be especially important for low- and middle-income countries that lack the resources to develop their own plans. A failure to plan also tends to mean a waste of resources – global health experts estimate it costs around US$ 4.5 billion a year globally to properly prepare for pandemics. By contrast, responding to the pandemic is costing low-and middle-income countries on average a staggering US$ 52·45 billion every four weeks.

10. Life in 2021 will require as much vigilance

Many people are understandably keen to see the end of 2020, but public health experts are keen to point out that nothing will materially change on 1 January 2021. Comprehensive testing and contact tracing programmes are yet to be successfully rolled out anywhere in the world, even in high-income countries. Scientists have modelled future scenarios of how the pandemic may evolve, none of which include a scenario in which the virus disappears. By the end of 2020, we are unlikely to have a treatment or a vaccine, and when we do get a vaccine, the logistics of manufacturing and distribution are not insignificant.

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History tells us that the end of pandemics are rarely – if ever – neat, uncomplicated, or even easy to date.

In the 19th century, yellow fever had taken hold of parts of Europe and the USA, especially the Deep South, killing thousands. Now mostly in Africa and South America, this mosquito-borne disease could spread at any moment, threatening public…

As early as the 1500s, efforts to halt the spread of smallpox included risky procedures designed to trigger immunity. By the 1800s, these methods – collectively termed “variolation” – had been supplanted by the earliest example of a new, safer…

The increased use of disinfectants could allow for the development of bacterial strains which are resistant to disinfectants.

On 15 March 2020, Somalia received 300 000 doses of Oxford AstraZeneca vaccines from the COVAX Facility to protect frontline workers and elderly people with chronic health conditions from COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) hears…

In March, Mukami received her first COVAX vaccine dose. As a woman in her 60s living in Kenya, she has priority access to COVAX vaccines, alongside other high-risk groups like health care workers and people with underlying diseases. Here she…

On 22 March 2021, the world marked World Water Day, with the theme for this year’s celebration being “valuing water.” What can the long history of water’s connection with health teach us about its true value to the world?

Experts say there’s nothing new about the research underpinning the covid vaccines and that they were tested in more participants than many other approved vaccines.

Covid-19 vaccination efforts are picking up worldwide, bringing hopes of returning to a more normal life. Vaccines are now starting to reach countries across the globe through the COVAX initiative, set up to promote equitable access to vaccines…

What side are you on, paper or dryer? In either case, here's the bottom line on what to do after using the toilet.

By understanding the circumstances that make viral evolution more likely, we stand a better chance of staying a step ahead.

COVAX was designed to ensure the most vulnerable in every country get access to COVID-19 vaccines. But what about people in conflict zones or humanitarian settings that can’t be reached by government vaccination campaigns? Last week Gavi approved…

The key insights from the assessments to date present a high-level snapshot of country readiness to deploy COVID-19 vaccines based on initial findings from ongoing assessments in 128 countries.

To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most read articles on diseases other than COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.

As more and more people get vaccinated against COVID-19, some are worrying about how ‘normal’ their side effects are. Here’s what you need to know.

Instead of working to make vaccines against each unique coronavirus or variant, what if we could provide broad protection across the field through an all-in-one coronavirus shot?

The virtual event will bring together world leaders, the private sector, civil society, and key technical partners to galvanize resources and commitment to the Gavi COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC).

Wuhan investigation points to wildlife as likely source of COVID-19. Climate change and illegal trade are increasing risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Wildlife protection, surveillance of zoonosis are key to early detection of ‘spillover…

Ghana became the first African country to receive vaccines through the COVAX initiative in February. Meet one of the nurses spearheading the vaccination effort.

More than 100 years after the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic, type A influenza virus not only poses one of the largest threats to the modern world, but the risk of spill-over of avian influenza from poultry to humans is growing.

For one year, 600 people tracked 20 types of coronavirus restriction in 186 countries – here's what they found out.

Whilst COVID-19 caught the world off guard, the speed at which it spread and the extent of its impact on people’s lives came as a great shock to most. However, some were not surprised at all.

Ghana became the first African country to receive COVAX doses in February, kicking off a mammoth logistical effort in the country to get these doses to the frontline workers that need them. #VaccinesWork spoke to the cold chain experts making it…

The continent had a milder first wave than the rest of the world, but research suggests that relaxed public health measures led to the coronavirus rebounding with a vengeance the second time around.

To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most-read articles on how countries have been navigating COVID-19 during an unprecedentedly challenging year for global health.

The Covid-19 pandemic is global, and to bring the pandemic to a close, a collaborative, global approach is needed. But why is it so important that all countries have access to vaccines as soon as possible?

These results can help allay previous concerns in Europe about a lack of trial data for older people.

There are several COVID-19 vaccines being used around the world, but all need to be injected and some need ultra-cold refrigeration. Could next-generation intranasal vaccines be a quicker and easier way of protecting ourselves?

Tuberculosis kills millions of people each year, but several recent advances in vaccine development are providing fresh hope.

The tiger mosquito that carries the chikungunya virus is now moving into new habitats in Europe and America thanks to climate change. This means the once tropical disease could soon become a global pandemic threat.

The global response to the coronavirus pandemic, for all its flaws, has yielded impressive results by ignoring traditional bureaucratic and sectoral silos. That should spur us to raise our ambitions for global public health, with an emphasis on…

The virus appears to attack support cells at the back of the nose, but “smell training” may help people to recover their missing sense.

Accra, 18 March 2021 – COVID-19 vaccination in Africa is gathering pace, with more than 7 million doses so far administered. But the continent received vaccines later than other regions of the world and in limited quantity. A few weeks after…

Community vaccinators go where fixed health centres can’t reach. In Afghanistan, that means fighting Taliban injunctions, entrenched gender imbalances and difficult terrain, all to ensure the nation’s children are protected.

Time to get vaccinated!

In today’s blog post, we’re featuring a fierce and passionate female WASH advocate from Nigeria. Tariah Adams, a Senior Communications and Advocacy Officer for White Ribbon Alliance Nigeria and campaign mobilizer, she has a personal interest in…

At the end of the year 2019, we created an elaborate 2020 plan for our projects at Beyond the Classroom Foundation. As we got closer to our second project scheduled for the end of March, the government imposed a lockdown, banning all public…

Unlike traditional security threats, infectious disease can’t be solved through sanctions, military posturing, deterrence or bilateral diplomacy, but rather through scientific collaboration, long-term investments in global health and resilient…

Story of Hira Ahmad, polio community engagement consultant in south region of Afghanistan.

Ebola has so far only affected African countries, and occasional cases outside of the continent have been rapidly contained. But the virus could mutate to spread more easily between people, making it more of a pandemic threat.

To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most read articles on COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.

So far, homeschooling has been trial and error because it’s difficult to keep the twins calm and engaged for long periods of time. We have no fixed curriculum and use online educational programs as a guide. 

The COVID-19 pandemic wasn’t the first to devastate the world and it won’t be the last. In a new series, we round up emerging infectious threats that have the potential to erupt into global pandemics.

After a difficult year, the vaccination roll-out is underway at Ghana’s premier medical facility, where health workers dare to hope that things can go back to normal.

John Nkengasong is the Director of the Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is also the WHO special envoy for Africa. John spoke to CovidHQAfrica desk about a range of issues including his vision for the vaccines in Africa, and…

COVID-19 has demonstrated that viruses not only know no borders, but they also do not discriminate based on immigration status. Failing to take migrants into account in our vaccination efforts would hamper the effectiveness of these campaigns and…

To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most read articles on COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.

Sales of medical devices that measure the oxygen saturation of blood are booming thanks to the COVID-19 pandemic. But are they worth the investment?

Genetic sequencing has linked the recent outbreak of Ebola disease to a survivor of the 2014-16 West Africa epidemic, meaning the virus could have laid dormant in one survivor for over five years. What does this mean for our efforts to control…

Abuja, 12 March 2021 – As the second wave of COVID-19 affects the global health and economic community, the World Health Organization (WHO) is supporting government to engage strategic stakeholders as part of concerted efforts to reverse the…

With the historic global roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines in full swing, bottlenecks in the supply chain are inevitable as manufacturing output tries to keep pace with demand. A manufacturing supply chain summit last week outlined potential…

An army of volunteers help people who otherwise would have had difficulty securing a covid vaccination because of cumbersome computer or telephone registration systems.

Various countries have halted the use of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, while reports of blood clots are investigated. Here’s what we know so far.

For anyone who has worked on crop improvement in Africa over the last three decades, the flood of misinformation around vaccines evokes an eerie sense of déjà vu.

Nipah virus can kill as many as three out of four people it infects. Since the fruit bat that carries the virus often comes into contact with humans, here we explain why the development of drugs and vaccines for the disease is becoming…

Our immune systems are supposed to defend us from invading pathogens but, in the case of COVID-19, an immune overreaction may be to blame for severe illness.

Dr Paul Garner, a British infectious disease expert at the UK’s Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine caught COVID-19 early in 2020, and then developed Long COVID. Here, he talks frankly with Gavi about his experiences, how he recovered and how…

COVID-19 vaccine testing on children is just getting started, and only in adolescents.

The virus is always present in nature and when circumstances allow, it may jump from one species to another.

Since COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, many countries around the world imposed some form of quarantine to control its spread. What can the history of quarantine teach us about isolation and lockdowns now?

Researchers identify bacterial variants that may be evolving resistance to antimicrobials and vaccines.

Vivianne Ihekweazu (Lead writer): On the day marking one year since the first COVID-19 case was reported in Nigeria, this article reflects on the experience and lessons learnt from the Honourable Commissioner for Health, Dr. Tomi Coker as she led…

Overall efficacy is just one metric.

For the people of Lahaul, the opening of a new high-altitude tunnel ends years of wintertime isolation – and opens a vital route of access for COVID-19 vaccines.

Stockpiles of this vaccine are going unused in France and Germany, and unfounded criticism of it may be partly to blame.

This is the third in a three-part series highlighting key lessons learned since the launch, four years ago, of the Cold Chain Equipment Optimization Platform (CCEOP), established by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to ensure optimal cold chain…

This is the second in a three-part series highlighting key lessons learned since the launch, four years ago, of the Cold Chain Equipment Optimization Platform (CCEOP), established by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to ensure optimal cold chain…

Leaders in global health have been working on COVAX – a global initiative to ensure the fair distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. Some of the top jobs are held by a diverse group of women, so in honour of International Women's Day we'd like to…

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here we follow Razia, a female vaccinator in Afghanistan, as she does her daily rounds.

For this year's International Women's Day VaccinesWork has interviewed a number of women leaders and front line workers who represent this year's IWD theme: #ChooseToChallenge

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Nighat Rani, a vaccinator in Pakistan, shows how her work rests on a bedrock of female empathy and understanding…

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Professor Chizoba Wonodi, Founder of Women Advocates for Vaccine Access in Nigeria and Country Director at the…

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Professor Quarraisha Abdool Karim, epidemiologist and associate scientific director for CAPRISA – the Centre for…

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Professor Heidi Larson, Founding Director of the Vaccine Confidence Project, explains how gender can affect…

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Rathnamma P, an 'ASHA' in Bengaluru, India, explains how the country's army of one million female community health…

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Anuradha Gupta, Gavi’s Deputy CEO, explains what ‘choose to challenge’ – this year’s IWD theme – means to her.

To make the world safe from COVID-19, we need everyone vaccinated, including children. To get back to normality, we also need vaccinated adults, ongoing safety measures, safe re-opening of schools, access to all recommended vaccines – and…

As political and public health leaders across the world work to encourage people to get vaccinated against COVID-19, what can they learn from the King of Rock ‘n’ Roll getting jabbed?

Reaching the goals of the plan requires the best possible interaction between public and private -for profit and not-for-profit - healthcare sectors.

The first deliveries of up to 2.5 million doses of COVAX vaccines by autonomous drone began this week in Ghana.

Several vaccines that have become available have shown different levels of efficacy. So what is vaccine efficacy? Dr Lee Hampton, a paediatrician and medical epidemiologist with Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, explains.

A vaccine that apparently protects animals against multiple strains of flu has been created by tethering a relatively unchanging part of the surface proteins found on the virus to nanoparticles.

As more COVID-19 vaccines become available, countries the world over are now faced with the daunting task of carrying out mass vaccinations. Here, one expert explains how her organisation is supporting rollouts in the US and offers insights into…

Most people have been doing everything they can to avoid getting COVID-19, but in the coming days British history student Jacob Hopkins has chosen to be deliberately infected with SARS-CoV-2 as part of the world’s first Challenge Trial. He…

Real-world studies of vaccines aren't directly comparable with clinical trials, but their results are still good news.

COVID-19 cases are falling week on week, so can we allow ourselves to be hopeful?

COVID-19 vaccination campaigns using COVAX-funded doses commenced today in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, the first global rollout.

This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines – from how they work and how they’re made to ensuring safety and equitable access – in WHO’s Vaccines Explained series.

Ghana is not only the first country to receive a shipment of COVAX vaccines, but it will be the first to broaden its reach by delivering them by drone. The new partnership with Zipline and UPS Foundation will see 2.5 million doses delivered this…

Even those that live in areas where the population has already been vaccinated would not be totally protected if the virus mutates elsewhere.

The first in a three-part series of blogs highlighting key lessons learned since the launch, four years ago, of the Cold Chain Equipment Optimization Platform (CCEOP), established by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to ensure optimal cold chain…

Roald Dahl's daughter Olivia died of measles aged seven.

Minor side effects are a normal sign that the immune system is mounting a protective response following vaccination, although they aren’t universal.

Countries in the West Africa region are in a very different position to seven years ago. They now have the experience of the past as well as new tools to tackle Ebola.

Vaccine data from Scotland provides reassurance that the Oxford-AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines will significantly reduce hospitalisations and deaths from COVID-19 among older people after the first dose.

The continent is one of the most experienced regions in the world in dealing with disease outbreaks.

Maintaining antibodies in the blood requires creating certain long-lasting immune cells – but this doesn't always happen.

The pandemic won’t last forever, but the virus that causes COVID-19 might. Here we look at what we can expect over the next couple of years in a Q&A with Dr Lee Hampton, pediatrician and medical epidemiologist at Gavi.

The tracking of antibodies in Ebola survivors suggests they wax and wane, which could make vaccine booster shots necessary.

22 February 2021

No Time to Waste

Saving the planet from catastrophic climate change will require not only a dramatic increase in funding for clean-energy research and development. We need innovation in policy just as much as in technology.

The world's most advanced economies will incur half the total costs associated with a failure to vaccinate poorer nations, which could exceed $4 trillion if only half their citizens are inoculated.

With three major coronavirus outbreaks in the last two decades – first SARS-CoV, then MERS-CoV, and now SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 – another outbreak is inevitable. Scientists are calling for the world to step up the search for a universal…

A new trial about to start in the UK will deliberately infect people with the virus that causes COVID-19 – if we have vaccines already, why do we need this?

If we are to minimize the impact of future disease outbreaks, we must recognize the importance of immunization and invest in preemptive vaccine development, writes Tim Keys.

As wearing face masks in public becomes the new normal across the world, what can we learn from a country like Japan, where this has been a long-established practice?

The global effort to contain COVID-19 risks disrupting campaigns against other diseases. Will the fight to control the deadly rabies virus in India be among them?

The World Health Organization has given the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine an Emergency Use Listing, passing an important milestone before the first delivery of COVAX vaccines worldwide.

The side effects of new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are a result of immune system activation. While uncomfortable, they are both normal and expected. They are a sign that the vaccine is working.

The G7 has an opportunity to demonstrate global leadership in the COVID-19 pandemic by making the success of the international COVAX vaccine-access facility its top priority. Global solidarity is not only morally right, but also offers the…

Unprecedented international cooperation and focus have led to multiple effective and safe Covid-19 vaccines in less than a year, and created a blueprint for future vaccine development. Here's how

COVID-19 deaths differ among men and women but the differences are not reported. A project is building sex-aggregated data on COVID-19 globally. Such data is key to developing effective solutions to fight COVID-19.

It’s totally normal to experience side effects from COVID-19 vaccines. Here’s what you need to know.

Guinea is having its first Ebola outbreak since 2016, when West Africa experienced the biggest outbreak ever seen. Could the vaccine that contained previous outbreaks soon be redeployed?

Geneva / New York / Oslo – 15 February 2021 The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), as co-leads of the COVAX initiative for equitable global access to…

With the first Covid-19 vaccines in short supply, how do governments decide who gets a vaccine first?

A new study suggests that historical traumas from the French colonial era may be associated with less trust in modern medicine and lower vaccination rates today.

Clinically significant SARS-CoV-2 variants are likely to be here to stay, but multiple COVID-19 vaccines still have a role to play.

In Tanzania, the Ocean Road Cancer Institute is doing its part to ensure that people across the country can receive cancer treatment and care, regardless of their ability to pay.

Gavi’s CEO explains how the COVAX Advance Market Commitment mechanism will make COVID-19 vaccines available to lower-income countries.

Maina Modu is the programme manager for Routine Immunisation in Borno State, working with the State Primary Health Care Development Agency (SPHCDA). He coordinates the state emergency routine immunisation coordination centre activities.

The choice facing world leaders is simple: act now to tackle the hunger crisis, or pay a much higher price later. Immediate action will be cheaper and save more lives than responding only after multiple famines have taken hold and a generation’s…

As the pandemic brings long-standing health disparities into sharper view, community health workers are coming to the forefront in the public health response. This fast-growing workforce help fill the gaps between health care providers and low-…

By building on the lessons learned in 2020, it should be possible in the long term to compress vaccine development timelines still further. That would allow healthcare systems to stamp out disease outbreaks much earlier and save many more lives…

Oxford scientists are already working on an updated version of their COVID-19 vaccine to ensure people remain fully protected against new variants of SARS-CoV-2. But how would these be delivered and how often would they be needed? 

The recommendations offer reassurance amid concern over whether some vaccines are as effective against new variants.

Antibiotic resistance has been a slow-growing scourge, fueled in part by relatively weak political support for implementing national action plans and surveillance systems. Because the problem is essentially the result of multiple systems failures…

In Islamabad’s slums, Gavi-supported Civil Society Human and Institutional Development Programme is ensuring that parents know that their children can be vaccinated safely by following COVID-19 guidelines.

In Pakistan, a life-saving game of immunisation catch-up is underway after the COVID-19 emergency forced over a million children to miss out on routine vaccinations.

Contaminated doorknobs and packaging probably aren’t the main way the coronavirus spreads. But don’t throw away the hand gel and cleaning products just yet.

The coronavirus is evolving, but which path it will take is far from certain.

Smallpox was one of the deadliest diseases in the world, but it’s the only one in history to have been eradicated globally. One Somali man sat on the frontline of this effort and can inspire the world today as we battle yet another devastating…

While vaccines are the safest way to prevent the spread of infectious disease, a tiny proportion of those vaccinated may experience an adverse event. Here, we explain how often this happens and why.

Antimicrobial resistance was already a major global health threat, but now the potential increase in the use of antibiotics in response to the pandemic could exacerbate the problem and threaten a potentially even bigger global crisis.

Face coverings have become a standard feature of pandemic life, but which mask is best for everyday use, and how should you take care of it?

The medical and moral imperative for equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines is why COVAX was created. Co-led by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, together with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (…

Researchers are already working to improve the current crop of mRNA vaccines. Hopefully this will help them become more practical and affordable for the entire world, not just first-world countries.

Pandemic restrictions and wider use of flu vaccines may have explained 2020’s record low cases of seasonal flu, but will the picture look like in tropical countries with year-round flu?

The emergence of variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, serve as a powerful reminder that viruses by their very nature mutate, and that the scientific response may need to adapt if they are to remain effective against them.

Research suggesting that one of the COVID-19 vaccines provides only minimal protection against mild-moderate infection caused by the 501.Y.V2 variant has raised concerns. But this doesn’t mean it won’t prevent severe disease and deaths.

Global access to HPV vaccine is vital, particularly in lower-income countries. Lessons learned from HPV roll-out could boost uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.

Efficacy rates for COVID-19 vaccines are higher than many scientists had dared dream of, but even if they prove less effective in real life, or in the face of new variants, they could still unlock normal life.

The currently available coronavirus vaccines have been tested on adults of various ages, as well as those with long-term conditions, and appear to be safe. But there are a few groups who should avoid being vaccinated for now.

Scientists wanted to find out about the long-term effect of measles on the immune system. Scientific article for students.

Several COVID-19 vaccines may have now demonstrated their ability to prevent disease, but it was still not clear whether any could stop the virus being passed on. Now however a preliminary study suggests that some might also be able to reduce…

As World Cancer Day approaches amidst the COVID-19 pandemic,  it’s now more important than ever to ensure continued access to HPV vaccines to eliminate cervical cancer around the world.

Dr. De Sousa has spent more than twenty years charting the highs and lows of polio eradication in Angola.

Given the speed at which COVID-19 vaccines have been developed, it is understandable that people want to know whether they are safe. So what measures have been put in place to ensure the safety of these new vaccines?

The single-dose vaccine showed promising results in preliminary data from a phase 3 clinical trial.

Punjab province introduces typhoid conjugate vaccine, taking the next step in protecting children from typhoid in Pakistan.

A system originally designed to do real-time monitoring of vaccine supply chains in India has now been adapted to help ensure COVID-19 vaccines reach as many people as possible.

The results indicate that the vaccine efficacy in the UK was 89% for individuals who received at least two doses of vaccine. In South Africa, the vaccine efficacy was 60% in people without HIV.

Geneva/Oslo/New York, 3 February 2021 – The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the World Health Organisation, as co-leads of the COVAX initiative for equitable global access to COVID-19 vaccines…

With the World Health Organization inviting COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers to submit their candidates for evaluation, we examine the process from submission to Emergency Use Listing.

Manaus variant spreads faster and could carry higher risk of infection. Researchers believe new variant spread from Brazil to Asia. Fast, widespread vaccination is best way to slow down mutations.

When getting vaccinated against covid-19, there’s no sense being picky. You should take the first authorized vaccine that’s offered, experts say.

Irene Baker* is a care assistant at a psychiatric hospital in England. She describes the challenges of caring for mentally ill patients during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

A biologist explains what proteins do in viruses, how they interact with human cells, how the vaccine delivers mRNA into the cell and how antibodies protect us.

In a special one-off interview, PolioNews (PN) talks to both Aidan O’Leary (A-O’L) and Michel Zaffran (MZ) about the future of polio eradication.

Pfizer and Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine candidates have turned the vaccine cold chain into hot news. But what is a cold chain? How does it work? And what does it have to do with equity?

We've gone from a novel virus to several COVID-19 vaccines in less than a year. Here's what we've learned from earlier vaccines to allow this to happen.

COVAX is forecasting it will roll out over 2 billion COVID-19 vaccine doses in 2021. What does that mean for the world’s poorest countries?

The world’s most comprehensive study reveals all! A new study looking at the impact of vaccinations in 98 countries over the past 20 years concludes that 37 million people are alive today thanks to vaccines.

Scientists are working to understand what mutations of the virus mean for inoculation strategies.

Australia is set to get the green light to roll out the Pfizer vaccine any day now. There is a complex process behind this.

To achieve universal sanitation, we need greater investment and higher rates of sanitation coverage.

New research adds to the argument that the global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines is the most optimal solution for a global economic recovery.

Don't panic if a second dose isn't available exactly when you need it.

In Zimbabwe, Friendship Bench, a community-based approach is providing solutions to people struggling with their mental health during this pandemic.

If vaccine efficacy can’t be assessed through placebo-controlled trials in future, how can we know if they are effective?

The initial concern that nervousness over the new vaccines would slow uptake doesn’t seem to have become a reality in the early days of COVID-19 immunisation, although it will be critical to maintain vaccine confidence suggests an Ipsos poll.

Scientists have observed that 501Y.V2 has quickly become "dominant" among multiple variants that have been circulating in the South African population.

It’s time-consuming but worthwhile: Residents respond to messages about Covid testing and vaccines when outreach teams speak their language and make a personal connection.

Zambian data challenges the assumption African populations may have been spared from COVID-19.

Will these rapid tests really allow us to lower our guard during the pandemic?

Without a vaccine, the worldwide economic impact of COVID-19 would have been $3.4 trillion a year. But even with a COVID-19 vaccine, unequal allocation could cost the global economy up to $1.2 trillion a year in GDP.

COVID-19 is deepening global food insecurity, as the pandemic’s economic impact adds to existing challenges.

Vaccines that use harmless viruses as a delivery mechanism are vulnerable to being attacked by our immune system – but experimenting with how they are given could get around this.

A medical professor explains the reasoning behind the delay in the UK and what impact this might have on the vaccine's effectiveness.

COVAX announced the signing of an advance purchase agreement for up to 40 million doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; rollout to commence with successful execution of supply agreements.

Some people continue to shed viral RNA for weeks or months after developing COVID-19. Could persistent pockets of infection be to blame?

New review of evidence on a single-dose HPV vaccination schedule is published by PATH-led consortium.

African leaders can make strategies to fight COVID-19 more accessible to the people.

Immunity to most coronaviruses is short-lived, but will the same hold true for the virus that causes COVID-19 or vaccines against it?

Health workers take COVID-19 precautions to deliver polio drops.

In the United States and some other countries, members of disadvantaged racial and ethnic minorities have a lower-than-average life expectancy, and therefore are under-represented among those most likely to die from COVID-19. How should…

Vaccination, face coverings and physical distancing are essential parts of a team effort against the coronavirus.

Young volunteers gain new skills and give back to their communities.

New variants will push the number needed to reach herd immunity up.

New variants of the coronavirus are causing alarm across the UK and South Africa, with many countries closing their borders to travellers from these countries. But what effect could new strains have on our ability to control the pandemic?

Western Equatoria Ministry of Health and UNICEF are preparing for COVID-19 vaccination campaigns.

How two effective vaccines on the market make it so much harder to quickly test any competing vaccines.

In Cameroon’s Marua region, the pandemic means farmers are now faced with the double challenge of using what limited water resources they have to grow crops while saving lives through handwashing.

Taking a wait-and-see approach to COVID-19 vaccines could lead to only pockets of the population being protected. Will this be enough to end the pandemic?

What normally takes decades has been achieved in 12 months, without cutting corners.

As participating countries look towards receiving their first batch of COVID-19 vaccines through the COVAX Facility, we examine how South Africa is ramping up its readiness.

Covid-19 has changed the world of vaccines, but that doesn't mean all diseases will get treatments as quickly.

As at January 12, 2021, Nigeria has had over a hundred thousand confirmed cases of the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. The pandemic has continued to challenge healthcare system...

As long as humans encroach on nature, pandemics are inevitable — making it important to concentrate resources in areas where people and wildlife are linked.

We’ve always been able to adapt vaccines to protect against emerging variants and additional pathogen strains, but new vaccine platforms could make this even easier.

On 8 January, Derrick C became one of the first people in the UK to receive his second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, three weeks after the first dose. Here we ask him what that was like.

As a Gavi-funded emergency stockpile of Ebola vaccines becomes accessible, we look at the ultra-cold chain equipment used to keep these vaccines at the right temperature.

Answering this question will take us one step closer to our new normal.

How resistance to drugs originates, and why it's different for vaccines.

Lockdowns are an effective way of reducing COVID-19 infections, but they could take a more general toll on our health if we allow them to.

Long-term protection will depend on the 'memory response' developed by our immune systems – and the initial signs are promising.

COVID-19 vaccines are set to become the quickest vaccines in history to go from initial trials to rollout, but what lessons can we learn from its speedy predecessor: the Ebola vaccine?

While some of the world's richest and most technologically advanced countries have struggled to contain the spread and morbidity of COVID-19, Rwanda has set a shining example of how to manage a pandemic and safeguard public health. Chief among…

From Liability Laws to Production Delays, the 2009 H1N1 Swine Flu Vaccine Rollout Offers a Cautionary Tale for Today.

Sterilising immunity means that the immune system is able to completely prevent a virus from replicating in your body. Not all vaccines provide this.

Vaccinators tackle winter conditions and challenging contexts during Afghanistan’s last polio campaign of the year.

In March 2020, as soon as the first cases of COVID-19 were detected in Kyrgyzstan, a state of emergency was declared, and the country went into lockdown.

For all of the good news about the arrival of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines, the hard truth for the coming year is that global demand will outpace supply. Without a multilateral agreement to allocate doses globally, the road to recovery…

Uncertainty in the availability of vaccine doses is prompting some countries to consider altering dosing schedules, or mixing different vaccine types. How could this impact the effectiveness of vaccines?

We believe the best way to address misconceptions is to arm yourself with the facts and have a few key points and statistics. Here’s our list of facts to combat common misinformation.

Here's what we still need to find out before we can know when we'll be able to return to our pre-coronavirus ways.

In less than a year, the world has come together to develop effective COVID-19 vaccines and a multilateral platform for allocating them most efficiently around the world. But with the risk of vaccine nationalism still looming large, now is the…

Viruses are constantly mutating and often this process does not have any impact on the risk they pose to humans. However, occasionally mutations can occur which make it easier for viruses to infect us, or which could render vaccines against them…

Long-lasting symptoms appear unrelated to how bad your infection was, though women appear more affected than men.

Answers to the most common questions about coronavirus vaccine development.

Managers owe it to their employees to stop treating work from home like a luxury. The office wasn’t invited into the home. It turned up like an unexpected guest – and it shows few signs of leaving soon.

Whole virus vaccines use a weakened or deactivated version of the disease-causing virus to trigger protective immunity against it.

The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Covid-19 vaccines are more than 90% effective, as reported in phase III clinical trials – and the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is the first Covid-19 vaccine to be licensed.

Viral vector-based vaccines use a harmless virus to smuggle the instructions for making antigens from the disease-causing virus into cells, triggering protective immunity against it.

Despite huge advancements in the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS in recent decades, an effective vaccine remains elusive – and is desperately needed to end the global pandemic that kills more than 700,000 people each year.

Antibodies that go rogue and attack healthy tissue identified in patients with severe COVID.

Protein subunit vaccines use fragments of protein from the disease-causing virus to trigger protective immunity against it.

Nucleic acid vaccines use genetic material from a disease-causing virus to trigger protective immunity against it.

In August 2020, Nigeria became the last African country to be declared free from wild poliovirus.

Well-designed communication can increase healthy behaviours, including vaccine uptake. Here are our top five mantras for how to think about COVID-19 vaccine communication.

Kenya marked its 1st anniversary of the launch of the pilot in September, with more than 128,000 children reached with vaccine, and one country health official expressing “a great sense of pride” in being part of the effort to protect children…

Before any COVID-19 vaccines can be delivered to the public, their use must be approved by national regulatory authorities. We look into the process before vaccines would be approved for distribution and use in Nigeria and South Africa.

To combat vaccine misinformation at home and around the globe, we must build trust.

Now that the first COVID-19 vaccine has been approved, and others are on the way, what does getting vaccinated actually involve? Here are some of the logistics involved and what to expect after you’ve had your vaccine.

The fight against COVID-19 has seen vaccine development move at record speed, with more than 170 different vaccines in trials. But how are they different from each other and how will they protect us against the disease?

The COVAX Facility plans to start rolling out the doses in early 2021 to high-risk groups in participating countries, with the aim of vaccinating up to 20% of populations of participating countries by the end of the year.

As we prepare for one of the world’s largest vaccination efforts, and on the occasion of International Migrants Day, we are coming to a critical reckoning: the need for inclusive approaches in our health-related thinking and practices has never…

Viruses mutate all the time, but this new mutation affects the viral protein that invades human cells. What does this mean for the pandemic and the vaccine?

Vaccines have been approved – so why are we still developing others?

The COVID-19 vaccines currently rolling off production lines have been developed faster than any other vaccine against a new disease in history. How have scientists achieved this incredible feat? And could the lessons learned enable more rapid…

The best way we can prevent flu infection is by getting vaccinated. The problem with the flu vaccine is that in some years it doesn’t work as well as others.

Coronavirus can survive on surfaces, so should unwrapping presents be considered risky? We examine the evidence.

A second typhoid conjugate vaccine has achieved WHO prequalification and others are in development. More vaccines will help increase access to TCVs.

12 charts provide an overview of our research in the face of a truly unprecedented crisis.

Some of the COVID-19 vaccines use messenger RNA to provoke an immune response. But what exactly is this genetic material, and how does it interact with the DNA in our cells?

As the new COVID-19 vaccines begin to ship out, how ready are health systems to manage delivery? Here are four ways countries should frame that question.

New girl-centered toolkit helps health officials develop and implement communications campaigns that resonate with girls in their countries.

Community mobilizers inform and prepare communities for vaccinators.

COVID-19-related restrictions differ from country to country, but as families gather to celebrate during the festive holidays there are some important things you can do to protect yourselves and your loved ones against coronavirus.

Here’s why continuing to physically distance and wear masks is vital until we can be sure how long vaccine-acquired immunity lasts.

Some people respond strongly to perceived threats to their freedom and push back – others are simply more accepting of risk.

Preparing African countries for COVID-19 vaccines will require thoughtful planning and unprecedented coordination across a wide-range of stakeholders.

We need more data on the low-dose, high-dose regimen used in one arm of the trial, which may make the vaccine more effective.

Restaurants, gyms and religious establishments appear to account for most coronavirus infections in US cities, but new analysis suggests there are strategies which can reduce the risks.

Like patients with long COVID, some Ebola survivors have lingering symptoms which can make it difficult to work or function in everyday life. Dr Janet Scott has been studying these survivors, and now also has her sights on COVID-19. She tells us…

What if I’ve already had COVID – do I still need a vaccine?

Some countries may stop their vaccination programs for a while to reduce the risk of spreading COVID-19. But which is better: fewer coronavirus infections or making sure children get all their usual vaccinations?

Without a greater focus on the gender dynamics of the COVID-19 crisis, women and girls will suffer long-term handicaps that constrain their economic prospects for years to come, if not permanently. We already know enough about the pandemic's…

At this crucial moment for immunisation, considering community perceptions of vaccination has never been more important.

Not even the COVID-19 pandemic will stop them.

Janet, mother of twins, tells fellow mothers.

As companies race to develop COVID-19 vaccines, some development processes have been run in parallel to stop the pandemic as quickly as possible. Yet safety remains paramount; now that we are on the brink of rolling out some of the vaccines that…

Scientists have been racing to develop COVID-19 vaccines that could reach millions, yet many of the studies have surprisingly small sample sizes drawn from the clinical trials. Does that matter?

Fluvoxamine has shown positive results in early trials.

The COVID-19 pandemic now threatens global progress on preventing and treating childhood pneumonia, potentially reversing decades of health gains for the world’s most vulnerable children.

Over the past three decades, improvements to maternal and newborn health have led to many more infants surviving beyond the first 28 days of life. But disruptions to health services caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may now be undoing years of hard…

Having a range of Covid-19 vaccines available for people to use around the world will be essential to bringing the pandemic under control. Here’s why.

Despite the benefit of all the recommended public health measures in preventing transmission, vaccines still provide us with the best chance of our lives returning to some semblance of normality.

Research suggests that the quickest way to end the pandemic and limit the economic damage is for all countries to benefit from a coordinated global vaccine deal.

This week Gavi signed a historic agreement with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) to improve immunisation coverage for migrants and forcibly displaced persons around the world. IOM’s South Sudan Communications Officer, Liatile…

CEPI spoke with vaccine safety expert, Dr Robert Chen, Science Director of The Brighton Collaboration – the largest global organisation of scientific experts on vaccine safety – about how vaccine safety is assessed in clinical trials and how…

COVID-19 patients are at an increased risk of being diagnosed with anxiety, depression or insomnia. Here’s a closer look at how the SARS-CoV-2 virus can impact your mental health.

The global pandemic is far from over, but this latest in a series of welcome announcements brings renewed hope even if several hurdles remain.

Memorandum of understanding signed today will strengthen collaboration on vaccination efforts and related health services for migrants and forcibly displaced persons across the world

Promises of COVID-19 vaccine doses for developing countries will face challenges along the crucial cold chain.

Interim analysis of the AstraZeneca/Oxford COVID-19 vaccine candidate – to which Gavi has secured access – suggests an efficacy of 62– 90%. Crucially, the vaccine can be administered and distributed using existing health care and supply chain…

The Oxford vaccine – developed in partnership with AstraZeneca – stops 70% of people developing COVID symptoms, and, depending on how the doses are given, may even protect up to 90% of people.

Local adaptation and innovation has allowed the resumption of polio immunization campaigns – and points the way to more effective, community-based delivery of a whole range of basic health services.

New research suggesting that antibodies reduce faster in men compared with women could have implications for vaccine development.

Although antimicrobial resistance has been a known and growing problem for decades, only one new class of antibiotics has been discovered since 1984. Tackling AMR requires a fundamental change in how new antibiotics are valued, and government…

Until now, we didn’t know how long immunity after infection with COVID-19 would last – new research suggests it could be long-lasting.

Early results from COVID-19 vaccine trials are starting to emerge, and scientists have received the first reports from three independent studies with optimism because protection against the coronavirus is possible.

Unlike PCR tests, which involve complex laboratory equipment and highly trained staff, lateral flow tests can be processed on the spot and return a result far quicker. But how exactly do they work, and could they really make a difference to the…

As COVID-19 continues to surge over the globe, it forces us to reckon with the fact that true global health equity – universal access to primary healthcare – is an unfinished task that we pay for at our collective expense. Water, sanitation, and…

It is very exciting to hear another positive story about vaccine trial results – a good vaccine is the most likely way of ending the pandemic.

The two terms used to describe how well a drug or vaccine works are often used interchangeably, but they are not actually the same thing – here’s why.

Vienna, Austria – In this final story in the World Health Organization series exploring the human cost of the COVID-19 pandemic, Eugene, a care-home nurse in Austria, shares the story of how he survived coronavirus.

As COVID-19 has overwhelmed the medical system, a group of volunteers in Nigeria is undertaking the task of slowing the disease’s spread within communities.

The main way the virus is thought to spread is through respiratory droplets and fomites (contaminated objects or materials such as clothes, furniture and door handles). With this mode of spread, most infections take place through close contact,…

The Ministry of Health and UNICEF Kenya, with support from Gavi, are working to ensure that routine health services, such as immunisation, continue during the pandemic. Watch their video to learn more.

COVID-19 has presented many new social and economic challenges, and is exacerbating already existing ones. One such challenge is global poverty. Right now over 700 million people live in extreme poverty worldwide, which is defined as living on…

In this third story in the World Health Organization series exploring the human cost of the COVID-19 pandemic, Gracia, a junior high school student in West Papua, learns life skills for the future.

How will the COVAX Facility ensure equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines is indeed equitable? By Aurélia Nguyen, Managing Director, Office of the COVAX Facility

The COVAX AMC Engagement Group, composed of Gavi COVAX AMC participants, donors, and other stakeholders, forms a key component of Facility governance.

Pfizer’s update certainly is fantastic news. A COVID-19 vaccine could well be approved and ready for use in the next few months. But whether that means we can all get back to normal life by early 2021 is less certain.

In this second story in the World Health Organization series exploring the human cost of the COVID-19 pandemic, Shukria, a volunteer, talks about how she helps her community with providing masks and awareness messages about COVID-19.

The European Commission, France, Spain, The Republic of Korea and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation pledge US$ 360 million to Gavi’s COVID-19 Vaccines Advance Market Commitment (COVAX AMC)

Interim results suggesting that Pfizer/BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine provides more than a 90% efficacy, offers hope that immunisation can be effective against COVID-19. But the need to store this vaccine at “ultra cold” temperatures could pose…

The yearly influenza season threatens to make the COVID-19 pandemic doubly deadly, but I believe that this isn’t inevitable.

In the first of a World Health Organization series exploring the human cost of the COVID-19 pandemic, Nombasa, a frontline healthworker, makes an urgent appeal to governments and global health partners.

Immunity triggered by exposure to the coronaviruses that cause the common cold could protect people, especially children, against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

A successful vaccine produces the best possible immune response, whilst keeping side effects to a minimum. When adverse events following immunisation (AEFIs) do occur, it is important that they are reported, especially if they are serious, even…

An interim analysis of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine candidate suggests is more efficacious than many had dared to expect. The announcement is a welcome indication that a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine might be within reach, but there are…

Vaccination programmes have prevented millions of deaths worldwide, but their continued success relies on our continued participation.

With Denmark culling its entire farmed mink population following discovery of a mutated form of SARS-CoV2, are we at risk of further complications and diseases from animal-human transmission?

While developing an effective vaccine probably won’t bring an immediate end to the pandemic, it’s clear that things can’t begin to return to normal without one. Anything that reduces a future vaccine’s effectiveness will be a problem. This…

The world is anxiously awaiting the development of a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine. Nearly 60 years ago, the world was also waiting in eager anticipation of a publicly available vaccine to stop a disease that was ravaging communities around…

Superspreading events, where one person infects tens of others, appear to be playing an increasingly significant role in the spread of COVID-19. So what have we learned about these events and how can we stop them from fuelling the pandemic?

Never has the development of vaccines been so widely anticipated as for COVID-19, and arguably never has so much been at stake. Because without COVID-19 vaccines, we cannot bring this crisis to a swift end.

Anosmia is the medical term for a sudden loss of smell and has been associated with COVID-19. Here’s a closer look at the olfactory dysfunctions linked to the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Josh Morrison, Co-founder and Executive Director of 1Day Sooner, an organisation that advocates on behalf of challenge trial volunteers, explains why.

Mathematical modelling suggests that if wealthy countries stockpile COVID-19 vaccines, we will see nearly twice as many deaths than if vaccines were shared equally across the globe.

The COVAX Shareholders Council, composed of all self-financing participants, forms a key component of Facility governance.

Effective treatments that are accessible to everyone who needs them have to be part of the solution to the coronavirus pandemic – here's why.

Malnutrition can affect the immune system and the quality of immune response to vaccinations, with potential implications for low-income countries where COVID-19 is already fuelling a "hunger pandemic" in the most vulnerable people.

As part of the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic, COVAX – the vaccines pillar of the Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator, co-led by Gavi, CEPI, and the WHO – welcomes the appointment of civil society organisation representatives to…

It is clear that COVID-19 will persist much longer than anticipated. If countries do not take action soon to ensure the continuity of essential health services during the pandemic, the future death toll from communicable and noncommunicable…

Spending less time in the workplace usually results in lower rates of infectious disease, but workplace closures in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific may be increasing exposure to the mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus.

Combining geographical information on populations, locations of health care sites, and the movement of vaccinators can offer insights into how efficient and equitable vaccination coverage is, and has great potential to improve immunisation…

For some vaccinators in the vast archipelagic nation of Indonesia, a day in their professional life may involve trekking through deep tropical valleys and jungles or crossing the open waters on rickety boats to isolated islands.

Now, COVID-19 is unleashing substantial health, social and economic impacts in every corner of the globe. But it is the poorest countries and the most vulnerable communities around the world that stand to suffer the most from this protracted…

CEPI’s strategic investments in vaccine manufacturing at facilities around the world will support the COVAX goal to produce 2 billion doses of safe and effective vaccine by the end of 2021.

We are all being exposed to a huge amount of COVID-19 information on a daily basis, and not all of it is reliable. Here are some tips for telling the difference and stopping the spread of misinformation.

In the face of the challenges posed by the pandemic, Ghana is working to protect 4.5 million at-risk children from polio through the launch of two polio vaccination campaigns. Here’s a closer look at those efforts for World Polio Day.

The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a spotlight on social, economic, and environmental risks that have been building for the past half-century of neoliberalism. Even amid the deep uncertainties of today's global situation, one thing is clear: it is…

President of Niger H.E. Issoufou Mahamadou talks about the importance of routine immunisation and Gavi support in Niger, and the need for ensuring universal access to COVID-19 vaccines through the COVAX Facility.

Timor Leste has kept COVID-19 infections to a minimum, and thanks to effective collaboration has managed to successfully reverse the initial declines seen in immunisation coverage and health service delivery.

Timor-Leste’s Director-General of Health Services for the Ministry of Health discusses the unique challenges of tackling COVID-19 in Timor-Leste and how have they been addressed.

Most vaccine candidates in early development fail: this is the stark reality of vaccine development.

Over 50% more children were immunised in Gavi countries in 2019 than in 2000, yet 10.6 million children continue to miss out entirely on basic vaccinations. Here’s why reaching these children and setting them on the pathway to full immunisation…

We need a range of treatments to make Covid-19 preventable and treatable. Jeremy Farrar describes recent progress made by research and why more investment is needed.

Herd immunity threshold may have been reached in Amazonas capital, Manaus, but experts warn that herd immunity is not the end of the pandemic.

Vaccines based on the common cold virus are at the forefront of the COVID-19 vaccine race, but they may be less effective in people who have previously been infected by these common pathogens. So how could we overcome this challenge?

Global Handwashing Day and the ongoing spread of COVID-19 is a timely reminder about the importance of handwashing with soap as an effective and affordable way to stay healthy.

As the pandemic unfolded around the world, hand sanitizer and handwashing stations became as in-demand as toilet paper.

Gavi’s long-term approach to developing healthy markets for critical vaccines has led to greater stability and security, providing countries with the confidence that supplies will be available to meet their demand.

In 2019, a higher share of Gavi-supported countries than ever before met their co-financing obligations on time, thanks to strong political commitment.

Big data has the potential to change society for the better, but this opportunity is being undermined by a failure to collect data from across societies and make it publicly available.

In 2019, countries delivered more than 230 million routine vaccinations, a record number, supported by unprecedented levels of health system funding from Gavi to support immunisation and protect the most vulnerable children. Here is what Gavi did…

On International Day of the Girl Child, Gavi’s Megan Holloway looks at how COVID-19 is impacting the lives of girls

As the most ambitious pandemic-response initiative ever conceived, the COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access Facility is the best chance the world has to bring the pandemic to an end. But to succeed, COVAX requires broad international buy-in, based on…

These global efforts are increasingly urgent as the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to put millions of lives at risk from famine and malnutrition.

People who have had COVID-19 can develop an immune response that normally protects people from recurrent infection. But now that reinfections of COVID-19 have been recorded, what does that mean for our ability to fight the virus?

European Commission Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) humanitarian air bridge made it possible

Japanese Government pledges US$ 130 million in funding to the Gavi COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC), bringing the total raised to roughly US$ 1.8 billion.

Preventing and controlling infectious disease is possible with dedication of health workers, multi-stakeholder collaboration and equitable access to vaccines. Africa’s wild polio-free certification, which took decades of collaborative effort, is…

Just over six months since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, what do we know about this new coronavirus?

For more than 30 years, monoclonal antibodies have transformed the way we treat many diseases. Researchers think they are also one of the most promising treatments for Covid-19. Here's why.

Emergency use procedures are designed to make potentially life-saving medical products available as quickly as possible during health emergencies. A record number have been granted since the arrival of COVID-19 pandemic, but what does this mean…

Polio, a contagious disease caused by the poliomyelitis virus is transmitted primarily when stool from someone infected contaminates foods, drinks or water sources. It invades the nervous system and could, in a matter of hours, lead to complete…

Vaccines are designed to trigger an immune response to pathogens we’ve never encountered before. But how does it feel to be one of the first humans to encounter a new vaccine? British communications consultant Heather Macdonald-Tait explains what…

The United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Italy and Sweden pledge approximately US$ 960 million to Gavi’s COVID-19 Vaccines Advance Market Commitment (COVAX AMC)

In a matter of months, the COVID-19 pandemic has devastated the global economy. Now a new study looks at how this economic shock is impacting sovereign debt levels of Gavi-supported countries.

Africa has not been as hard hit by the COVID-19 pandemic as predicted. Here, we talk to Professor Salim Abdool Karim, the head of South Africa's Ministerial Advisory Committee on COVID-19 to find out why and what the future might hold.

In the first of this series, we look at the highlights of an evaluation to determine the potential barriers to immunisation caused by the increase in urbanisation.

Vaccines save lives by protecting children and adults from diseases. COVID-19 pandemic is a clear example of what a world without vaccines could look like. Governments should ensure that delivery of essential services such as vaccines remains a…

Throughout the 2016–2020 strategic period, the Vaccine Alliance has worked with countries to improve data quality. From GIS to SMS, new tech and tools aim to reach more people with life-saving immunisation.

To bring countries on a trajectory towards financial sustainability, and to empower them to take ownership
of their vaccination programmes, Gavi has pioneered an approach to co-financing and transition.

With only 542 global cases in 2019, polio is a distant memory in most parts of the world. However, this highly contagious disease could spread rapidly in communities with limited access to vaccines, health care and sanitation – a risk greatly…

The Gavi Board has approved the provision of US$ 150 million in initial funding to jumpstart support COVAX AMC-eligible countries’ readiness to deliver COVID-19 vaccines, in the form of planning, technical assistance and cold chain equipment

Her own healthy baby son is how Ugandan nurse Maureen Wandawa demonstrates the benefits of immunization. Working together to build confidence in, and access to, vaccines for all who need them is one way we can #UniteforHealth to keep us all safer…

Gavi's partnership with telecoms provider Orange and the Ministry of Health overcomes barriers to childhood immunisation through tailored, tested technology.

The Covid-19 pandemic is a social and an economic crisis just as much as it is a health crisis – its repercussions, severe and far-reaching, are being felt across the world.

The true number could be much higher, and two million could die before we get a vaccine, says the World Health Organization.

The UK is expected to host the world’s first COVID-19 human “challenge” trials, which will involve deliberately infecting healthy volunteers with coronavirus to assess the effectiveness of experimental vaccines. So far, around 2,000 potential…

Gender equality must be at the heart of not only our response, but our attempts to restructure systems to be fairer and more equal to recover better.

The prospect of having the first supplies of at least a few effective COVID-19 medicines and vaccines by the end of 2020 is a key driver of recent market optimism.

The benefits of immunisation extend beyond preventing childhood deaths. Vaccines are also a vital tool in the fights against cancer, outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance.

Every winter, hundreds of thousands become infected with seasonal influenza, which kills between 290,000 and 650,000 people worldwide each year. But this year, we have another respiratory illness to contend with: COVID-19. So, what does this mean…

Collaboration among the Serum Institute of India (SII), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will accelerate manufacturing and delivery of up to an additional 100 million doses of future vaccines, if proven to be…

When I join Gavi in January, it will be at a time when it is contemplating the most ambitious period in its history.

We are close to a polio-free world, yet cases of vaccine-derived disease are challenging the eradication effort.

Tips for teachers to protect themselves and their students.

The goal of our market shaping work is to help ensure vaccine markets work better for lower-income countries. We want the maximum number of people to receive the life-saving and health-protecting benefits of immunisation.

After transitioning out of Gavi support in 2017, the Republic of Moldova is mobilising champions and advocates to strengthen vaccine confidence – which is crucial to the success and sustainability of immunisation programmes.

An ingredient called dmLT could be the key to improving vaccine effectiveness in low-resource settings.

Biggest funders of emerging infectious diseases R&D are also biggest recipients. Ebola and Zika experienced R&D spike in wake of epidemics. US is losing global leadership role in the field.

Vaccine manufacturers have worked hard to adapt to a new normal of keeping supplies for immunisation programmes going in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Typhoid fever is increasingly resistant to the main antibiotics used to treat it. Gavi is supporting a new vaccine to help control this deadly disease – and fight antimicrobial resistance.

We commit to fostering a just, equitable and diverse culture free from racism and discrimination in which all staff, partners and stakeholders feel empowered, safe and heard.

At the beginning of the pandemic there was a mad scramble to develop a test which would accurately diagnose COVID-19 infection. Now, six months in, hundreds of testsare available – but how do they differ, and which test is the most appropriate…

September 2020 marks the 75th anniversary of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). This year, the focus of the high-level General Debate is the importance of effective multilateralism.

Gavi’s Derrick Sim, Director of Vaccine Supply and Demand, discusses why it is sometimes important to halt clinical trials.

Snapshots from DRC, India and Zambia illustrate country ownership and progress in the fights against Ebola, polio and HPV.

Being in a constant state of high alert and uncertainty is exhausting yet health officials warn that we can’t let our guard down yet and resisting living with the ‘new normal’ could threaten our health.

Some researchers conducting clinical trials on a COVID-19 vaccine have not revealed to the public what the placebo contains, but they should.

Supporting health systems is essential for Gavi’s work to improve immunisation coverage and equity.

We need to understand the impact of Covid-19 on wider health issues to shape better public health responses and limit long-term consequences. Drug resistance is one of these, Gemma Buckland-Merrett explains.

How will COVAX ensure that COVID-19 vaccine doses reach all countries at the same time, and protect those people that need it the most?

When disaster strikes a country, the impact on people’s health can be immense and long-lasting. As the effects of climate change are felt around the world through rising temperatures and sea levels, natural disasters are increasingly frequent and…

When I was 12, I received the HPV vaccine just like most girls my age in Rwanda. The day after we got the first dose, my classmates started spreading rumours about the vaccine that they had heard from their families and communities.

18 September 2020

Why vaccines?

Vaccines are the best tools yet invented to prevent child deaths and protect people’s health. Gavi funding for access to vaccines has protected a generation of children growing up in lower-income countries. Gavi funds twin approaches to…

Effective vaccines prevent individuals from developing disease, but some also stop people transmitting the pathogens that cause them. What role will they have to play in ending the COVID-19 pandemic?

While scientific and vaccine manufacturing community make huge strides in the race towards that goal, it is important to remember that vaccines are only one of three Vs needed to beat this coronavirus.

How one social mobiliser in South Sudan has managed to contribute to health security in her region.

2020 was already going to be a monumental year — the beginning of the 10-year countdown for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Anecdotes of how people feel about vaccines are plenty, but there have been few attempts to gather robust global data. This five-year study reviewed survey responses from over a quarter of a million people around the world on how they felt about…

Gavi’s CEO provides an overview of its flagship publication, launched today.

In Malawi, primary school drop-out rates are among the highest in Africa. To try and guarantee high coverage, the HPV vaccine is administered to 9-years-old girls.

No one is safe until everyone is safe. This phrase has become a slogan for global health figures but what does it mean in the worldwide COVID-19 response?

If a COVID-19 vaccine is to reach the global public sometime next year, it will be the result of one of the fastest developments and rollouts of a vaccine against a new disease ever. In contrast, the RTS,S malaria vaccine, which is currently…

Ethiopia has overtaken Nigeria to become the Gavi-eligible African country most affected by COVID-19. Over the past week, the number of confirmed cases in Ethiopia has grown exponentially. Despite the pandemic, immunisation activities – both…

As CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance funded largely by Bill Gates, Dr Seth Berkley has helped vaccinate almost half the world’s children from fatal and debilitating diseases. His current baby is the COVAX Facility to help develop, manufacture and…

As COVID-19 vaccines have a critical role to play in ending this pandemic crisis, many experts have described them as a global public good. But what exactly does that mean?

You may have heard the saying, “no products, no programs,” but for those who work in public health during COVID-19, the saying has become “no PPE, no programs.” And for community health workers (CHWs) who play a vital role in providing health…

Many of the infections that can lead to sepsis are becoming resistant to antibiotics, which means that preventing them by vaccination is critical.

Helping rural and urban girls across Ethiopia understand cervical cancer and HPV.

Antibodies are one route to immunity against disease, but T cells and innate immunity also play a crucial role in protecting us. So, how could these different types of immunity be mobilised against COVID-19

More than 3,000 health workers are conducting a three-day health campaign from 30 August to 1 September 2020 to ensure that around 400,000 children aged under five receive measles and polio vaccines, as well as vitamin A and deworming tablets, at…

3 September 2020

COVAX explained

To end this global health crisis we don’t just need COVID-19 vaccines, we also need to ensure that everyone in the world has access to them.

When COVID-19 vaccines become available demand is likely to outstrip supply, at least initially. So, who should be first in line?

Researchers across the world are working flat out to develop and manufacture a vaccine for COVID-19 that can end what has been the worst pandemic in at least a century.

Dr Melanie Saville, CEPI’s Director of Vaccine Development, discusses what a successful vaccine against COVID-19 would involve, some of the unknowns and the challenges that vaccine developers are wrestling with, and what makes CEPI’s approach…

Before the pandemic began, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was already facing a severe measles outbreak which started at the end of 2018. Despite huge challenges caused by COVID-19 and other diseases, the largest measles outbreak in…

How the African Region is Celebrating the End of Wild Polio while cVDPV Outbreaks Continue

What do the first confirmed cases of reinfection with COVID-19 mean for the rest of us and future of this pandemic?

The funding will support the Gavi COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC), which aims to secure doses of COVID-19 vaccines for 92 low- and middle-income countries and economies at the same time as wealthier nations

By foot, boat and bicycle, thousands of volunteer vaccinators in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) go to extraordinary efforts, sometimes at personal risk, to help eradicate polio.

An estimated $15.9 trillion has been mobilised to respond to the health and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of this has gone to multilateral and bilateral funders to support low- and middle-income countries’ (LMIC) governments.

When Aisha took her son Busami Modu to his grandmother’s house in Kuya, a village in Borno state, Nigeria, she waved goodbye to a healthy, happy little boy. A “beauty to behold,” she recalls. The next time she saw him, he was paralysed and unable…

One of the most time-consuming parts of vaccine research and development is the testing of a vaccine. How does this work, and how, in the context of COVID-19, are scientists trying to speed it up?

Data from global Ipsos survey shows 37% of those polled worldwide think it is likely a vaccine will be available by the end of the year. But is this optimism misplaced?

CSOs will play a vital role in the development and implementation of the COVAX initiative as well as the deployment of any successful vaccine through COVAX.

As one of the African countries most affected by COVID-19, Nigeria has faced significant economic and health impacts, including to routine immunisation, in the face of the pandemic.

Diarrheal disease is the second leading infectious killer of children under five worldwide. Lessons learned from tackling this deadly disease could also help us recover from COVID-19 stronger than ever.

A surveillance system in Somalia is providing real-time early warning disease alerts to help tackle health threats such as measles outbreaks and COVID-19 cases.

As more people have moved to cities, population density, human encroachment and increased global interconnectivity have contributed to the spread of infectious diseases.

COVID-19 has triggered lockdown measures for billions of people around the world. As many of us struggle to adapt to the ‘new normal’, we look at the origins of quarantine measures - and how they’ve been used to contain deadly outbreaks for…

Vaccines prevent millions of deaths every year by harnessing the body’s immune system to create defences against future infection. But how exactly does this work?

New landmark collaboration between the Serum Institute of India (SII), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to accelerate manufacturing and delivery of up to 100 million doses of future safe and effective COVID-…

Despite disruption to routine immunisation in Gavi-eligible countries due to COVID-19, collaborative efforts between Alliance partners and governments have made it possible to partially resume immunisation sessions in countries such as Pakistan…

The misinformation surrounding COVID-19 in the Democratic Repubic of the Congo isn’t new – public health officials hav