The COVID-19 pandemic has meant that as a species we have collectively gone into a form of flight-or-fight mode, an evolutionary self-defence mechanism that can kick in when faced with a crisis. But what happens when that crisis lasts for months with no end in sight? For many, this protracted emergency is resulting in pandemic fatigue. But what does that mean exactly, and could it breed a form of complacency that could spell trouble for the fight against COVID-19 in 2021?

1. Pandemic fatigue should not be confused with post-COVID-fatigue

Many people who have had even mild cases of COVID-19 can have post-viral fatigue that can last for months or even years. This can include feeling constantly tired, with aching muscles and brain fog. Instead, pandemic fatigue refers to feeling overwhelmed with still having to maintain a state of constant vigilance, in this case six months after the pandemic started, and a weariness to abide by restrictions.

2. Collateral damage from the pandemic

COVID-19 has infected more than 30 million people and killed nearly one million. These numbers seemed unthinkable at the start of the pandemic, but we are now having to accept that the numbers are likely to continue to rise especially as some countries start to enter their second wave of infections. This alone will exert a huge toll on human health. But the collateral damage is devastating too; the loss of incomes, the closure of entire swathes of community services and a lack of access to non-COVID-19 health services, including routine immunisation, is causing widespread insecurity and uncertainty about both the present and the future.

3. Mental health challenges

This emotional overwhelm can understandably lead to or exacerbate mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Health experts around the world have warned of a rise in the need for mental health services, which in the UK has been estimated at a 20% increase. A study in April this year looking at mental distress in more than 2,000 Americans indicated that 28% showed signs of serious mental illness compared with 3.4 in a similar survey in 2018. Young adults (18-44 years) showed the biggest downward change, and they were ten times more likely to have mental health issues.

4. The lingering effects of lockdown

Even for people who have not developed mental health problems, the weeks of lockdown and restrictions that millions went through brought emotional and psychological challenges that few had ever experienced. For many, those stresses may have lifted when lockdown eased, with schools and offices re-opening along with restaurants and gyms. Yet countries, such as Spain and the UK, are potentially facing new restrictions that might include another lockdown. Israel just went back into its second lockdown as it has one of the highest COVID-19 infection rates in the world. It’s unclear how people will cope with a second lockdown. In many low- and middle-income countries lockdown has proven disastrous. In India, 400 million workers in the informal sector - 80% of India’s non-agricultural workforce - are now at risk of falling into poverty as a result of the crisis.

5. Complacency about wearing masks and physical distancing

Although face-coverings and physical distancing is still mandatory in public spaces in most countries, there are many reports of people either not wearing masks or wearing them ineffectively. Equally, despite pavements and floors in shops and airports painted to indicate the distance that people should keep apart, often they are not heeded. Yet masks are unlikely to go away as a disease prevention tool for COVID-19, and moreover there is evidence that countries that introduced masks early on had milder epidemics. People in countries where the pandemic has yet to fully take-off, may also be complacent in continuing to comply with restrictions, in the believe that the threat is over.

6. The risk of re-infection in people who have had COVID-19

People who have had COVID-19 and have antibodies may feel that they are fairly well protected as they may have natural immunity to further infections. Yet natural immunity may not last long and there are documented cases of re-infection, sometimes leading to asymptomatic disease, but occasionally sending the person into intensive care. Some scientists believe that when a person is re-infected, they are protected by their antibodies from severe disease. But so far, it’s not clear how long antibodies last for, which also has implications for vaccine development.

7. Confusion over COVID-19 restrictions

Some pandemic fatigue seems to be caused by conflicting public health messaging in many countries. During lockdown, the rules in some countries were so strict that they were fairly unambiguous. Now, after the easing of lockdowns in many places, some countries are reintroducing restrictions of varying levels following rising numbers of cases. These constantly changing measures can cause confusion over what people should and shouldn’t do, for example, how schools should respond to students testing positive for COVID-19 or differences in messaging between local and national governments.

8. Misinformation and why people still don’t believe COVID-19 is a threat

An infodemic of misinformation about COVID-19 has threatened the COVID-19 response since the start of the pandemic. This includes false claims that it would be better to get the virus (in the belief that antibodies would then protect against further infection), that the disease is not as bad as people have been led to believe or even whether or not the virus is real. All of this can not only put people at risk by not following guidance such as wearing masks, but it can also put more vulnerable people in society at risk, as well as encouraging the spread of non-scientific information.

9. Failing to learn lessons can be disastrous for the future

Even when we are past the acute phase of this COVID-19 crisis, pandemic fatigue could threaten future disease prevention. Just three years after the H1N1 flu pandemic, World Health Organization (WHO) officials noted that health experts were unwilling to analyse it anymore to influence future pandemic planning, and were keen to move on. Yet such guidance based on lessons learned can be especially important for low- and middle-income countries that lack the resources to develop their own plans. A failure to plan also tends to mean a waste of resources – global health experts estimate it costs around US$ 4.5 billion a year globally to properly prepare for pandemics. By contrast, responding to the pandemic is costing low-and middle-income countries on average a staggering US$ 52·45 billion every four weeks.

10. Life in 2021 will require as much vigilance

Many people are understandably keen to see the end of 2020, but public health experts are keen to point out that nothing will materially change on 1 January 2021. Comprehensive testing and contact tracing programmes are yet to be successfully rolled out anywhere in the world, even in high-income countries. Scientists have modelled future scenarios of how the pandemic may evolve, none of which include a scenario in which the virus disappears. By the end of 2020, we are unlikely to have a treatment or a vaccine, and when we do get a vaccine, the logistics of manufacturing and distribution are not insignificant.

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23 August 2021

From volcano to outbreak: curbing the spread of cholera in the DRC

Aid agencies in Goma are joining efforts to contain cholera in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) after the eruption of the Nyiragongo.

23 August 2021

Pandemic Culture: The “Bangalore Banksy”: Art Against the Darkness

The Bengaluru street artist Baadal Nanjundaswamy is well-loved for his public-spirited art interventions. Lockdown managed to quieten him for a moment – but only for a moment.

20 August 2021

Why I no longer think we can eliminate COVID – public health expert

As New Zealand enters another lockdown after detecting a single COVID case, it's time to consider whether stringent zero COVID strategies are feasible in the long term.

20 August 2021

The Long View: Clothing Against Death

In the absence of good vaccines, doctors treating epidemic diseases must rely on cumbersome PPE as their one safety net. At least modern hazmat suits, unlike the 17th century plague doctor's all-leather outfit, actually work.

20 August 2021

How to eliminate cervical cancer - an expert explains

COVID-19 has caused a decline in the delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines that protect girls from cervical cancer. Anuradha Gupta, the Deputy CEO of Gavi, explains what we must do to create more access to these vaccines.

19 August 2021

Zimbabwe’s waste pickers waiting impatiently for COVID-19 vaccines

For the waster pickers of Bulawayo, COVID-19 has posed risks to both their health and their incomes. Hope for a vaccine is reaching fever pitch.

19 August 2021

How artificial intelligence could help the fight against COVID-19

Using big data and deep learning, machines and systems are offering new ways of responding to a pandemic.

18 August 2021

COVID-19 boosters: Would a third jab really stop the pandemic?

Rich countries are now considering giving booster doses to vulnerable individuals, having fully-vaccinated most adults. Is this wise?

18 August 2021

Is modern life encouraging the evolution of deadlier viruses?

The way we live can shape the evolution of pathogens, for better or worse.

18 August 2021

Vaccines can win the race against COVID-19 variants. Here's how

COVID-19 variants threaten to undermine global vaccine programmes unless we accelerate the pace of delivery and rise to the challenge of global deployment.

17 August 2021

Should we tell stories of vaccine sceptics who have died of COVID?

The news is full of stories of people who refused the jab who died of COVID.

17 August 2021

Clinics get routine immunisation back on track in Zimbabwe

The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic hit routine immunisation hard in Zimbabwe, but thanks to the hard work of local health workers children are now getting the protection they need.

17 August 2021

COVID-19: why we can’t use antibody tests to show that vaccines are working

Many COVID-19 antibody tests are not designed to specifically detect antibodies that develop as a result of vaccination, and thus cannot show whether antibodies are of the right quantity or quality for protection against infection or illness.

16 August 2021

Vaccines bring hope for children in Nigeria’s largest coastal slum

Access to routine immunisation and primary health care is changing the lives of children in Makoko, Nigeria’s largest coastal slum.

16 August 2021

Are chatbots better than humans at fighting vaccine hesitancy?

Could artificial intelligence succeed where people have failed in helping people overcome their fears about vaccines?

13 August 2021

Investing in Global Vaccine Equity Acknowledges Our Shared Fate

Vaccines are among modern medicine’s greatest innovations, allowing billions of people to lead healthy lives. But stopping outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease – and not only COVID-19 – depends on achieving critical mass with immunization…

13 August 2021

Plagues and classical history – what the humanities will tell us about COVID in years to come

We all need to know about the science of COVID as we battle through pandemic, but the ultimate story will lie in how it changed our society.

13 August 2021

TCV is 85% efficacious and urgently needed for Bangladeshi children

New study finds TCV prevents 85% of cases among vaccinated children in Bangladesh, which has one of the highest typhoid burdens in the world.

12 August 2021

Nigeria’s new initiative to boost routine immunisation

To improve routine immunisation, Nigeria is implementing the Accelerated Action for Impact (AAI) initiative.

12 August 2021

Pandemic Culture: Fatherhood and Fear in São Paulo

Henrique Montanari, also known as EDMX, has been daubing the walls of São Paulo with striking images conveying his fear for the impact the pandemic is having on his children, part of the “the pandemic generation”.

12 August 2021

Why are fully-vaccinated people still catching COVID-19?

Breakthrough infections are to be expected, but it doesn’t mean the COVID-19 vaccines aren’t working.

11 August 2021

How will COVID vaccines work on compromised immune systems? Here’s what we know

Being immunocompromised appears to affect the vaccine response, but this seems to vary depending on the causes of the person's low immunity.

11 August 2021

How bad will climate change be for our health?

The latest IPCC report emphasises the inevitability of some degree of climate change. The human health impact of this should not be ignored.

10 August 2021

The Long View: John Snow and the Pump Handle of Public Health

The narrative of the Broad Street pump is the story of a vital epidemiological discovery; it’s also a story about discovery: it has the tidy, conclusive quality of a fable about science. But in the years after its discovery, John Snow’s theory of…

10 August 2021

COVID-19 versus routine immunisation in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Health workers, community leaders and the Ministry of Health are hard at work trying to contain the damage COVID-19 is causing routine immunisation in the DRC.

9 August 2021

RSV: what is it, and why are child cases surging in the wake of COVID?

COVID restrictions have prevented the spread of other respiratory viruses too. As these are lifted, the UK government has warned parents of a delayed surge in infections.

9 August 2021

That Old Time Anti-Vaxx Feeling

The best single predictor of vaccine uptake per US state is not political affiliation, but the share of the population that believes the human race has always existed. Such findings do not bode well for the global effort to boost vaccination…

9 August 2021

If we’re not careful, booster vaccines could end up giving the coronavirus a boost

The sooner we start using booster jabs, the more likely it is that we will need them.

6 August 2021

COVID: why you still need to wash your hands

Respiratory viruses, such as influenza and SARS-CoV-2, while spread primarily by respiratory droplets can also be spread by contaminated hands touching the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and eyes.

6 August 2021

Review: 93 Days

In 2014, Nigeria escaped an Ebola pandemic in the span of 93 days because of the bravery and quick response of health care workers in Lagos. As the world fights through the COVID-19 pandemic, the film 93 Days – though grim – is a hopeful reminder…

5 August 2021

Reaching out to communities in rural Zambia

In rural Zambia, clinics and health centres rely on a limited number of medical personnel to run immunisation programmes, which makes the support of community leaders vital.

4 August 2021

Review: The Cutter Incident by Paul Offit

Offit’s sobering inquiry into “one of the worst biological disasters in American history” is a work of unflinching investigative journalism which lands, finally, not as a whodunit, but as a tribute to modern systems of meticulous vaccine…

4 August 2021

How do experts ensure vaccine safety?

From clinical trials to population surveillance, these are the multilevel mechanisms that ensure vaccine safety – including the safety of COVID-19 vaccines.

3 August 2021

Intellectual Property and COVID-19 vaccines

During a pandemic supply bottlenecks of essential medical products are almost inevitable, but with COVID-19 this has been further exacerbated by governments hoarding doses and imposing export bans.

3 August 2021

Refugees included in Uganda’s COVID-19 vaccine drive

Uganda is setting an example by including its estimated 1.4 million refugees in its COVID-19 vaccine programme, however there are still barriers to overcome.

30 July 2021

The Long View: A Deadly Alliance – War and the Pandemic Influenza of 1918

As World War I reached its climax, a terrible influenza pandemic broke out. By summer 1919, it had claimed many more lives than the conflict – but the conflict, researchers say, helped create the conditions for the devastating spread of the so-…

30 July 2021

Kenya’s digital vaccine warriors

The Savannah Innovation Hub teaches young women in Garissa County to counteract COVID-19 vaccine misinformation from groups like Al-Shabaab.

29 July 2021

“My heart is always stuck in my homeland”: A Rohingya returnee’s story

Abdullah and his family escaped genocidal violence in Myanmar in 2017, survived a diphtheria epidemic in Bangladesh’s Cox’s Bazar and weathered the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in a Rohingya camp. Then, in December 2020, he returned to the…

29 July 2021

“Saving the future of our children”: The women fighting polio in Pakistan

Pakistan is one of two countries where wild poliovirus remains endemic making it essential that the entire country supports the successful implementation of every polio campaign. Women play a critical role, often working at polio’s frontline.

28 July 2021

Fighting liver cancer with vaccines in The Gambia

Vaccines against cancer may seem like a futuristic notion, but children around the world are already getting protection against two of the biggest causes of cervical and liver cancer: HPV and hepatitis B.

28 July 2021

Pandemic Culture: Painting for joy - and vaccine confidence - in California

As COVID-19 began to grip northern California, one furloughed lunch lady turned herself into the Velvet Bandit, a pandemic warrior spreading her pro-science message across the streets of the Golden State.

28 July 2021

Pandemic Culture

For most of us, the pandemic did not start with a close encounter with the virus. Instead, this new normal began when public life was suddenly snuffed out: streets emptied, squares and parks closed, shops and workplaces shuttered. But, even as…

27 July 2021

COVID masks: how and when to ask someone to wear one – without getting into a fight

Just because face coverings aren't mandatory doesn't mean they're not protective – so here's how to ask someone to wear one.

27 July 2021

Review: COVID, Quickly – A Scientific American podcast series

This series cuts through the noise to help you catch up with the latest COVID-19 developments in an entertaining and digestible way.

26 July 2021

“I will definitely take the vaccine”: High demand for COVID-19 vaccines in Uganda

While there was some initial reluctance to get vaccinated against COVID-19 in Eastern Uganda, attitudes are changing fast.

23 July 2021

TB prevention has relied on the same vaccine for 100 years. It’s time for innovation

BCG remains the only widely available vaccine for TB. Yet the development of a COVID-19 vaccine over the last year shows that there is capacity to rapidly create new vaccines.

23 July 2021

#VW Book Club

The #VaccinesWork Book Club is home to reviews, interviews and recommendations of some of our favourite books, podcasts, films and documentaries focused on vaccination and global health.

23 July 2021

How effective are COVID-19 vaccines in the real-world?

Real-world data is starting shed light on the performance of COVID-19 vaccines in less than perfect conditions.

23 July 2021

Q&A: Vaccine – The Human Story

Dr Annie Kelly, writer and host of a new podcast which tells the story of the smallpox vaccine, talks to #VaccinesWork.

22 July 2021

Review: The Panic Virus by Seth Mnookin

Mnookin’s 2011 investigation of the spread of anti-vax feeling is a pandemic-era must-read.

22 July 2021

New vaccination figures underscore urgency to reach the most vulnerable

New data shows the impact COVID-19 is having on routine immunisation programmes worldwide, particularly in lower-income countries. We need action, now, to get routine immunisation programmes back on track and ensure that everyone, everywhere is…

21 July 2021

From town criers to local monarchs: encouraging COVID-19 vaccination in Southern Nigeria

Volunteers, including King Dakolo of the Epetiama kingdom, are sensitising and convincing people to accept the COVID-19 vaccine in Bayelsa State, Southern Nigeria.

21 July 2021

The Variant Threat Is Real

Rather than translating their own COVID-19 vaccination successes into a renewed global push to end the pandemic, rich countries are becoming complacent while the rest of the world grows increasingly desperate. But the emergence of dangerous new…

21 July 2021

Nurses on the COVID-19 frontlines in Sierra Leone

#VaccinesWork spoke to nurse Fatmata Kamara* about how the COVID-19 vaccine roll-out in Sierra Leone is progressing.

20 July 2021

Long COVID: with one in three patients back in hospital after three months, where are the treatments?

How investigation into long COVID will help us create treatments.

20 July 2021

The COVAX No Fault Compensation Programme: Explained

Indemnity and liability was one of the thorniest problems COVAX had to solve to successfully roll out COVID-19 vaccines in lower-income countries. The solution is a world first, which could offer a model for future pandemics.

19 July 2021

Willing and waiting: High levels of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance identified in Global South

The widespread acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines in low- to middle-income countries should boost global coronavirus immunity, if distribution issues can be resolved.

19 July 2021

Keeping routine immunisation going during Uganda’s second lockdown

Despite a second lockdown, outreach initiatives ensure continuation of Uganda’s routine child immunisation.

19 July 2021

Why Africa needs to manufacture its own vaccines

Dr John Nkengasong is a Cameroonian virologist and Director of the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC), which is working to strengthen the ability of Africa’s public health institutions to detect and respond to disease…

16 July 2021

COVID: should you ditch your mask once restrictions are lifted? A philosopher’s view

A philosopher of public health ponders whether taking your mask off on July 19 is like punching someone in the face or like riding a bike.

16 July 2021

How Do We Track Vaccinations for People Who Don’t Formally Exist?

Yoshinobu Nagamine, Senior Donor Manager at Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, describes the role contactless biometrics can play in accelerating vaccine delivery for those lacking formal identification.

15 July 2021

COVID-19: how a sense of community can increase vaccine uptake

If people feel a sense of duty to their local community, they're more likely to protect themselves and others by taking the COVID-19 vaccine.

15 July 2021

Pandemic Culture: Protesting the travel bug in Hamburg

Hamburg street artist and former immunologist Lapiz set out to critique his fellow citizens’ rush to jump on planes after getting vaccinated. So why did the travel agency he’d chosen as his canvas thank him for it?

15 July 2021

What can Nigeria do to boost local production of vaccines?

COVID-19 has made local, home-grown production of vaccines a national priority in countries around the world. #VaccinesWork spoke to Professor Martins Emeje at Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) to…

14 July 2021

We should treat COVID like norovirus – not the flu

Comparisons with flu are unhelpful – these diseases need to be treated differently.

14 July 2021

Pen and paper in a digital age: tracking childhood immunisation in Kenya

It may not be high tech, but it works. Kenyan community health volunteers use tracking books to ensure that children receive routine vaccinations.

14 July 2021

Will COVID-19 evolve to be more or less deadly?

Some viruses gradually become less virulent over time, but there's no guarantee that SARS-CoV-2 will follow that pattern.

13 July 2021

COVID: lambda variant is now in 29 countries, but what evidence do we have that it’s more dangerous?

The lambda variant ripped through Peru and is now spreading globally. But there is little evidence that it is more dangerous than the original variant.

13 July 2021

Could a universal coronavirus vaccine soon be a reality?

COVID-19 is unlikely to be the last coronavirus we ever see. Scientists are already trying to make a one-size-fits-all vaccine to stop a future coronavirus epidemic in its tracks.

13 July 2021

Could the seasonal flu vaccine help protect against COVID-19?

A large study suggests the influenza vaccine may reduce the risk of some of the worst consequences of COVID-19.

12 July 2021

Community Health Workers stop the spread of COVID-19 and polio in Nairobi’s slums

Community health volunteers collaborated with local structures in the slums to help inhabitants survive lockdown and stop the spread of disease.

12 July 2021

COVID-19 vaccine boosters: is a third dose really needed?

If immunity is waning or ineffectual against new variants, then boosters could be needed – but there needs to be evidence that they're necessary.

9 July 2021

Why Africa’s push to make vaccines should look further than COVID-19

Vaccine manufacturing doesn't come cheap. It depends heavily on support from developed countries. It also takes much more than relaxing intellectual property rights and a desire for vaccine equity.

9 July 2021

Are new variants making the COVID-19 virus as deadly as SARS?

Although related to the virus that caused the SARS pandemic in 2003, the COVID-19 virus has never seemed as deadly – until now.

8 July 2021

Handwashing ‘impossible’ for one in three amid COVID-19

One in three unable to properly wash hands at home during COVID-19 – WHO-UNICEF. Progress on water, sanitation and hygiene ‘must quadruple’ to meet 2030 target. Investment and prioritisation needed ‘at the highest levels’.

8 July 2021

Is COVID-19 effectively already endemic?

Will the pandemic go out with a fizzle or a bang? And what does “living with the virus” actually mean, and when will we get there?

8 July 2021

Opinion: Reach 'zero-dose' children to build back better

We must seize this opportunity to shape our COVID-19 response as a chance to achieve better equity and social justice. What better way to do that than to focus on zero-dose children?

7 July 2021

COVID variants: could dangerous new ones evolve in pets and farm animals?

Early results from several studies have found that pets can pick up COVID-19 from their owner – but they are unlikely to be dangerous as a result.

7 July 2021

Five ways to mitigate India’s third COVID-19 wave

India’s second wave of COVID-19 has devastated the country through a perfect storm of new variants, low vaccination uptake and a shortage of medical equipment and supplies. Here’s what we need to understand about the ongoing second wave to…

6 July 2021

India’s “Covaxin” vaccine shows high efficacy against COVID-19 infections in phase 3 trial

A vaccine that had previously been authorised by the Indian government ahead of phase 3 trials now show promising results. This could add to the global armoury of vaccines against COVID-19.

6 July 2021

Africa ‘tech hub’ aims to fill COVID-19 vaccine gap

New mRNA tech transfer hub to be established in South Africa. Facility will provide training and licences for vaccine development. Less than one per cent in Africa have been vaccinated against COVID-19.

5 July 2021

Unlocking Girls’ Potential Through Technology

The pandemic has exacerbated pre-existing inequalities, not least those disadvantaging women and girls in low- and middle-income countries. Fortunately, with today’s digital technologies, those providing health information and services for girls…

5 July 2021

Kenyans use their polio fighting network to tackle COVID-19

A rich network of community volunteers in Nairobi are putting skills they developed during anti-polio activities to work tackling COVID-19, and mobilising slum dwellers to get the COVID-19 vaccine.

5 July 2021

False negative: How long does it take for coronavirus to become detectable by PCR?

It takes time for coronavirus to become established in the body, so a negative test doesn’t necessarily mean you won’t test positive later on.

2 July 2021

Why vaccines need solar power

The power sources used to keep vaccines cold used to be polluting and unreliable. We spoke to Alex de Jonquieres, Gavi’s Director of Health Systems and Immunisation Strengthening about how Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, became investors in solar…

2 July 2021

How Can I Spot A Fake COVID-19 Vaccine?

Fake COVID-19 vaccines erode public trust in much-needed jabs and encourage vaccine hesitancy.

1 July 2021

The Long View: The Iron Lung

Before 1955, when a vaccine first made polio a preventable illness, the paralysing disease had to be treated. For many, the best option was the iron lung, a device that came to symbolise an era of anxiety in mid-20th century America.

1 July 2021

Why sharing bioimaging tech is crucial to global health

New bioimaging technologies are pushing the boundaries of medicine. But poorer nations risk losing out on these advances. Investment in facilities and training globally is crucial to bridge the divide.

1 July 2021

Are men and obese people really at greater risk of dying from COVID-19?

A reanalysis of 58 existing studies suggests that with COVID-19 being male or seriously overweight isn’t as risky as originally thought.

30 June 2021

How vaccines "demolished the wall" COVID-19 built between Nigerians and their loved ones

Separated for weeks and months because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the arrival of vaccines is allowing people to physically reconnect with friends and family.

30 June 2021

How to Prevent the Next Pandemic

We need to make the development and distribution of vaccines a truly global endeavor.

29 June 2021

There’s now a Delta Plus variant of COVID-19 – what does this mean?

The Delta variant that has caused devastation in countries like India and the UK has now mutated to produce another variant called Delta Plus. Should we be worried?

29 June 2021

Guinea declares Ebola epidemic over

Guinea declares end of Ebola outbreak after 42 days without new cases. Outbreak resulted in 23 likely cases, 12 deaths since February. Success attributed to community buy-in, capacity building and vaccination.

29 June 2021

Could a rapid neutralising antibody test free up doses of COVID-19 vaccines for low- and middle-income countries?

By identifying people with high levels of neutralising antibodies after a first vaccine dose, rapid tests could potentially identify those who don’t need a booster dose.

28 June 2021

What you need to know about COVID-19 vaccines and myocarditis in teens

This rare side-effect from the two RNA vaccines being rolled out might be concerning but the benefits of vaccination far outweigh the risks.

28 June 2021

COVID-19 vaccines: why it’s important you get your second dose

Two doses have always been more protective than one, but the Delta variant has made the benefit of the second dose much greater.

28 June 2021

A roadmap to recovery

The Immunization Agenda 2030’s new scorecard visualizes a journey toward pandemic recovery and global immunization progress.

25 June 2021

I’m fully vaccinated but feel sick – should I get tested for COVID-19?

Vaccinated people can still get infected with the coronavirus. So if you have symptoms of COVID-19, getting tested can protect others and help health officials keep an eye on the virus.

25 June 2021

“My world became smaller”: How COVID-19 vaccines are fighting stigmatisation in Nigeria

Forced to suffer in silence after contracting COVID-19, the arrival of vaccines is helping many Nigerians with a history of the virus overcome stigma and get their lives back on track.

25 June 2021

Despite the pandemic, Kenya rolls out measles-rubella vaccinations

Beginning today, Kenya’s Ministry of Health is beginning a major new measles-rubella vaccination campaign to defend against outbreaks.

24 June 2021

Tackling Malawi’s fears of routine immunisation: “Children should still be immunised amid the pandemic”

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected turn out for almost all Malawi’s health services, including routine immunisation. One local CSO is using Community Mother Care groups to trace those missing out on vaccines, helping to ensure children are…

24 June 2021

How the pandemic is fuelling antimicrobial resistance

For years, a growing number of infections that are resistant to antimicrobials has offered us a grim glimpse into a future with increasingly untreatable diseases. Now, COVID-19 has made antimicrobial resistance so much worse.

24 June 2021

Pandemic Culture: Doubt and Faith in Padua

The artist Evyrein is not a believer: not in the church, not in the easy orthodoxy of the oft-repeated phrase of the early pandemic, “andrà tutto bene” – everything will be fine. But in early 2021, his mural of a rebel St. Anthony with a giant…

23 June 2021

New systems map can help overcome difficulties in vaccinating hard-to-reach communities

A major obstacle for COVID-19 vaccination programs to achieve higher and more equitable vaccine coverage throughout the world is vaccinating hard-to-reach communities.

23 June 2021

What does COVAX’s latest supply forecast tell us?

The forecast is encouraging given the supply disruptions COVAX and countries with bilateral deals are currently experiencing, and the general challenges manufacturers are experiencing as they ramp up supply at historic speed and scale.

23 June 2021

Could lifting COVID-19 restrictions trigger a surge in other common infections?

Masks, hand washing and physical distancing don’t only reduce the transmission of coronavirus. So, what will happen when we do away with these measures?

22 June 2021

We archived 84 million tweets to learn about the pandemic – each one is a tiny historical document

During the pandemic, researchers have treated Twitter as a sprawling and evolving historical document.

22 June 2021

What happens when COVID-19 collides with HIV infection?

Mounting evidence suggests people living with HIV may be at greater risk of dying from COVID-19. The good news is that COVID-19 vaccines appear to be safe and effective in people with HIV.

21 June 2021

Giving 110%: Eswatini’s early rollout of COVID-19 vaccines

Eswatini received its first batch of 32 000 Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines in late March. 12 000 came through the COVAX facility and 20,000 through a donation from the Indian Government.

21 June 2021

How vaccines turbo-charge any existing immunity against COVID-19

A previous infection does give you some immunity against COVID-19, but a new study suggests that vaccination gives your body a massive boost – including against variants of concern.

21 June 2021

Q&A with Sterling and Seth: Spotlight on COVAX

What do the CEO of the Vaccine Alliance and the star of a hit US TV show have in common? They both want to raise awareness about COVID-19 vaccines and COVAX’s role in getting the world vaccinated.

18 June 2021

The Long View: The tragedy of Typhoid Mary

Mary Mallon was branded a public menace and incarcerated after typhoid outbreaks across New York City were linked to her presence in the kitchen. Was she unfairly demonised?

18 June 2021

Five Good Reasons to Go Give One

Wondering what you can do to help end the acute phase of the pandemic? Go Give One – is giving everyone everywhere a chance to play their part.

18 June 2021

Why we support COVAX: Mastercard

Mastercard, a long-standing partner of Gavi, recently committed US$ 28 million to the Gavi COVAX AMC, to ensure vaccines are accessible to those that needed them the most, no matter where they live. Vaccines Work spoke to Michael Froman to learn…

17 June 2021

Seven ways in which COVID-19 could change the way we fight infectious diseases

The pandemic turned our normal ways of working upside down, but there are several ways in which the new normal could bring improvements in the way we fight disease.

17 June 2021

Lifesaving but unaffordable: pros and cons of the newest COVID-19 treatment

Antibody therapy reduces COVID-19 fatalities by a fifth, but remains inaccessible to many countries.

17 June 2021

Needle phobia could be the cause of 10% of COVID vaccine hesitancy in the UK – new research

People who are afraid of needles are twice as likely to be vaccine hesitant, new research shows.

16 June 2021

Why we still need R&D into COVID-19 vaccines

There are now 17 COVID-19 vaccines approved for emergency use, but as the virus continues to evolve, here is why we can’t pull the plug on research into new vaccines and therapeutics.

16 June 2021

How COVID-19 will damage the lives of African children for decades to come

Although the coronavirus doesn’t cause disease and death in children as much as it does in adults, many children around the world are vulnerable to the collateral damage wreaked by the pandemic.

15 June 2021

Does a plant-based diet really help beat COVID-19?

A new paper suggests that plant- and fish-based diets lessen the chance of developing severe symptoms – but hold off from becoming vegetarian or pescatarian for now.

15 June 2021

Five things we know about the Delta variant (and two things we don't)

The Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS CoV-2 was first detected in India and is rapidly spreading around the world. Here’s what we know about it so far.

14 June 2021

Why speaking without a mask is the easiest way to spread COVID-19

COVID-19 virus particles can be spread via coughing, sneezing, breathing or speech, but the latter is one of the most effective ways of spreading. Here is why talking without a mask indoors could be one of the easiest ways to spread the infection…

14 June 2021

Floods hampering the vaccine roll-out in Western Kenya

Amidst the challenges that COVID-19 has brought, flooding in Kenya has made it even harder for the people of Kisumu County.

14 June 2021

How well do first and second vaccine doses work against Covid-19?

Is it risky or wise to delay the second dose of Covid-19 vaccine? Critics warned against the UK government policy of leaving a longer gap between doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines. Now we have more data, so what do we…

11 June 2021

Countries must share COVID-19 vaccine doses; the sooner the better

Some of the world’s wealthiest countries nations have already committed to share doses with lower-income countries through COVAX: as G7 leaders meet this week, other governments must follow suit and share their doses now, because we only have a…

11 June 2021

Do COVID-19 vaccines affect menstruation and fertility?

Ever since the pandemic started there have been news headlines speculating about the effect of the vaccines on our reproductive system, but what does the science tell us?

11 June 2021

From the great plague to the 1918 flu, history shows that disease outbreaks make inequality worse

Accounts of previous epidemics – by Samuel Pepys, Daniel Defoe and Katherine Porter – warn of mistakes that we risk repeating.

10 June 2021

Tackling typhoid in Zimbabwe: “We have to be sure for ourselves that the water is safe”

After a devastating typhoid outbreak swept through Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, a new, more effective vaccine is bringing hope.

10 June 2021

Six ways to know the COVID-19 pandemic is over

It’s been over a year now since the pandemic first started, and now that vaccines are rolling out in many countries, how long do we have to wait for things to go back to ‘normal’?

10 June 2021

To keep coronavirus at bay, we must create a ‘variant-proof’ world

We remain locked in a deadly race with the virus. We will only win when we have created a “variant-proof” world that can keep a lid on the havoc caused by its troublesome mutations.

9 June 2021

The ‘black fungus’ epidemic hitting COVID-19 patients in India

Amid the 28.4 million cases and over 300 thousand deaths from SARS-CoV-2, a second epidemic has hit India. ‘Black fungus’, clinically known as mucormycosis, is an infection currently affecting nearly 12,000 immunocompromised patients recovering…

9 June 2021

The mystery of 'long COVID': up to 1 in 3 people who catch the virus suffer for months. Here's what we know so far

While we don't know exactly what causes it yet, there are a few theories put forward by a few researchers around the world.

9 June 2021

How likely is a positive COVID-19 lateral flow test to be wrong?

Rapid antigen tests for COVID-19 are less sensitive than PCR tests, but here we explain why you should never ignore a positive result.

8 June 2021

Is 150 years really the limit of human lifespan?

Researchers think they've calculated the limit of human lifespan – but there's more to it.

8 June 2021

“This country belongs to all of us”: Vaccinating internal migrants in Nigeria

For those who migrate within Ondo State, Nigeria, access to immunisation has been complicated by the shift in focus to COVID-19.

8 June 2021

Speeding up vaccine development: Can we go from lab to jab in just 100 days?

COVID-19 vaccines were made in record speed, taking around 300 days from the moment the threat was first identified. But the world’s top scientists are aiming to overtake this world record in the next pandemic, aiming to make a vaccine in 100…

7 June 2021

Can dogs be trained to sniff out COVID-19?

Various countries are training dogs to detect coronavirus, and the results of early clinical trials are looking promising. 

7 June 2021

COVID-19's impacts on the brain and mind are varied and common – new research

Non-specific illnesses, such as headache and fatigue, are common, as are mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety.

7 June 2021

LGBTIQ people have been hit hard by COVID-19. Here’s how we can all help

Marginalized people suffer from being at the intersection of multiple challenges and barriers. Economic hardship has been a secondary epidemic in the LGBTIQ community. We need public health and support services that acknowledge difference.

4 June 2021

Five reasons why the real number of COVID-19 deaths could be triple the official number

The death toll from the pandemic has been devastatingly high, with the official figure standing at 3.5 million people, but the World Health Organization estimates the real number could be up to three times higher. Here’s why.

4 June 2021

Little-Known Illnesses Turning Up in Covid Long-Haulers

A significant number of post-covid patients suffer from syndromes that few doctors understand.

4 June 2021

Get the jab! COVID-19 vaccination in Goma

Community health workers, government and aid agencies join a chorus of voices encouraging vaccinations in the DRC.

3 June 2021

How well your immune system works can depend on the time of day

Our immune system is controlled by our "body clock" – an intricate 24-hour system which controls how cells function.

3 June 2021

Nigerians turn to social media for encouragement

Social media has been much-maligned as a source of misinformation when it comes to vaccines. But for millions of Nigerians it is having the opposite effect, encouraging them to get their jabs.

2 June 2021

Why COVID-19 variants got new Greek names

Calling variants by their country of origin has politicised the pandemic response, leading to countries being blamed and people originating from those countries stigmatised and targeted – sometimes violently. Now, the World Health Organization is…

2 June 2021

How the predicted hunger pandemic became a grim reality

Worldwide more than 3.5 million people have died of COVID-19 so far; now millions more are on the brink of starvation because of a connected hunger crisis.

2 June 2021

Can you test positive for COVID-19 test after getting the vaccine?

As more people get vaccinated, and testing requirements are becoming commonplace to allow freedom to travel and work, we look at the circumstances under which you could test positive for COVID-19 even after being vaccinated.

2 June 2021

World leaders and private sector commit to protecting the vulnerable with COVID-19 vaccines

In the COVAX Advance Market Commitment Summit, hosted by Japan, countries and industry came together to pledge support to the mission of making vaccines available equitably worldwide.

2 June 2021

World leaders unite to commit to global equitable access for COVID-19 vaccines

The Gavi COVAX AMC Summit “One World Protected” virtual event, hosted today by the Government of Japan and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, raised US$ 2.4 billion from nearly 40 donor governments, the private sector and foundations, exceeding the…

1 June 2021

COVID-19 in the house: How to reduce the risk of transmission

Further infections are not inevitable, if you take the following steps.

1 June 2021

Change to cold-storage conditions could make Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine more widely available

Several regulators have agreed the mRNA vaccine can be kept refrigerated for up to 30 days, making it easier to distribute in lower-resource settings.

1 June 2021

If you’ve had COVID-19 you could be more than 80% protected from reinfection

Whether or not you can become reinfected with COVID-19 hasn’t been clear so far, but a new study from Denmark indicates that immune response triggered by the first infection offers good protection.

31 May 2021

Self-COVID-19 tests: do you know your tonsils from your uvula?

Some COVID-19 tests require you to swab your own tonsils, but could you be mistaking them for something else?

31 May 2021

How the answer to long-lived immunity to COVID-19 could lie in our bone marrow

People who have had COVID-19 seem to have bone marrow cells that could produce antibodies for years to come, which could mean that immunity both from natural infection and vaccination is long lasting.

31 May 2021

The Long View: Keeping vaccines cool with cold chain

With millions of COVID-19 vaccines now being delivered around the world, they are utilising a huge hidden infrastructure, built up over decades and spreading across the globe, with one ultimate goal: keeping the vaccines cool. How did these …

28 May 2021

What steps must be taken to secure oxygen - for COVID-19 patients and into the future

New waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in countries, such as Kenya and India, have exposed the poor management of oxygen supplies. Moina Spooner, from The Conversation Africa, asked Professor Trevor Duke, an expert on [oxygen provision] and editor of…

28 May 2021

Encouraging vaccination in Nairobi: “If we work on awareness and motivation, we are good to go”

Pamela Anyango is on a mission to boost vaccine coverage in Dandora, Kenya, home to a garbage dump that has been labelled the ‘cradle of the next pandemic’.

28 May 2021

Is it safe to mix and match COVID-19 vaccines?

Mixing COVID-19 is being proposed in some countries but is it safe to do so, and how do our immune systems react?

27 May 2021

Malawi takes on religious beliefs that discourage immunisation

Malawi’s Ministry of Health is using its structures to reach out to a small section of religious groups that are threatening the success of the country’s immunisation programme.

27 May 2021

The Long View: Yellow Fever and the Panama Canal

At the turn of the 20th Century, US researchers in Cuba made the historic discovery that mosquitoes spread yellow fever. The finding was not only a medical breakthrough; it would also make possible one of the world’s greatest feats of engineering…

27 May 2021

The next pandemic: Rift Valley fever?

Rift Valley fever used to mostly affect livestock in Africa. But the virus that causes it is also spread by mosquitoes whose habitats are expanding because of climate change. If it were to make its way to the rest of the world, it would decimate…

26 May 2021

Could a new coronavirus be spreading from dogs?

Scientists think they may have caught a canine coronavirus in the process of adapting to humans.

26 May 2021

The point of it: Why do vaccine delivery methods vary?

Some vaccines are injected into muscle; others are given orally, or under the skin. What difference does it make to our immune response?

26 May 2021

How to give a COVID-mitigated hug

No activity that brings you into someone else’s breathing space is safe, but the risks associated with hugging can be lowered by taking some simple precautions.

25 May 2021

Filling the vaccine gap in Kenya

A well-planned immunisation programme can go a long way to reducing the burden of disease on a country.

25 May 2021

“We survived something major together”: Rebuilding after COVID-19

COVID-19 put a huge strain on Seyram and his mother’s relationship, as well as on their individual lives. The delivery of Ghana’s first batch of vaccines from COVAX means they can begin to rebuild what was broken.

25 May 2021

Coronavirus: so many variants, but vaccines are still effective

Variants of interest and variants of concern seem to be popping up at an alarming rate. But how many of them do we really need to worry about?

21 May 2021

The Long View: How Yellow Fever decimated the USA’s first capital

In 1793, with the United States of America less than 20 years old, a yellow fever epidemic decimates the capital city, Philadelphia, and shines a spotlight on stark racial and social inequalities.

21 May 2021

Can we stop wearing masks after being vaccinated?

In some countries, wearing masks against COVID-19 is not mandatory anymore, but can the rest of the world follow suit?

21 May 2021

Apostolic Churches warm up to COVID-19 vaccines in Zimbabwe

Attitudes towards vaccines are changing as Zimbabwe’s Apostolic Church members come to terms with COVID-19.

21 May 2021

Why Africa’s critically ill COVID-19 patients have the world’s highest death rates

Death rates on the continent are higher than Asia, Europe, North America or South America, in large part because of a lack of resources and underuse of resources that do exist.

20 May 2021

COVID-19: how rising inequalities unfolded and why we cannot afford to ignore it

It's been argued that pandemics are the great leveller, but with COVID the opposite is true – and we can't afford to ignore it.

20 May 2021

The community health workers getting people vaccinated in Uganda

As Community Health Workers, Harriet Nankwanzi and Yusuf Maganda have built personal relationships with people in their communities who have over the years relied on their services to access vital health information.

20 May 2021

Asia and Africa offer lessons in health systems resilience

In this pandemic, the income level of a country proved not to be a guarantee of an effective COVID-19 response; this analysis shows the key factors in a resilient health system to protect against future outbreaks.

19 May 2021

Do children need to be vaccinated against COVID-19?

Children have so far been able to evade the worst effects of COVID-19, but this could be changing as new variants and other factors seem to be putting more at risk.

19 May 2021

Poo and the pandemic: How sewage is helping us fight COVID-19

Many countries are beginning to use wastewater monitoring to track COVID-19 outbreaks, but such sewage surveillance has a long history.

19 May 2021

“If we don’t go out there, nobody would”: Vaccinating during an insurgency in Nigeria

Health workers go above and beyond the call of duty to ensure that the children of Borno State, Nigeria, are vaccinated.

18 May 2021

The impact of COVID-19 on Malawi’s routine immunisation programmes

The pandemic is having an adverse effect on Malawi’s continued drive to provide all children with routine vaccines.

18 May 2021

Fighting the flu: 100 years of preparing for pandemics

Although the world’s eyes are currently focused on COVID-19, a network of laboratories has been tracking the emergence and spread of a different virus for seven decades.

18 May 2021

Nomads in lockdown: COVAX reaches the Mongolian steppes

As COVAX vaccines reach the rural Batsumber in Mongolia, livestock herders hope that the loneliness of the pandemic era will soon come to an end.

18 May 2021

Why we support COVAX: UBS and UBS Optimus Foundation

The UBS Optimus Foundation has launched a campaign to help secure funding for the COVAX Advance Market Commitment. Vaccines Work spoke to Tom Hall, the UBS Head of Philanthropy Services to find out why.

17 May 2021

COVID vaccines: some fully vaccinated people will still get infected – here’s why

Reports of fully vaccinated people getting infected with coronavirus shouldn't cause alarm.

17 May 2021

How "camel riders" are helping the COVID-19 vaccine push in Kenya

With tourism hit hard by the pandemic, camel riders in Northern Kenya have repurposed their herds to help spread the word about COVID-19 vaccines, using traditional healers to gain trust in the community.

17 May 2021

The World Isn’t Getting Vaccinated Fast Enough. Here Are 4 Ways to Fix That

In an unprecedented show of global solidarity, the world came together to back COVAX, a unique global solution aimed at making equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines possible.

14 May 2021

COVAX Manufacturing Task Force to tackle vaccine supply challenges

A COVAX Manufacturing Task Force has been established to identify and resolve issues impeding equitable access to vaccines.

14 May 2021

Vaccinator training on smartphone screens amid COVID-19: Another “new normal”?

App-assisted vaccinator training is an approach that shows promise, write the team who ran a Gavi-supported pilot to trial a new screen-based learning mechanism in India. What’s more, amid the pandemic, the flexibility of learning from home,…

14 May 2021

China’s Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine first to carry a smart label to monitor heat-damage

It is the first vaccine developed by a non-Western country to be approved by the WHO, and is welcome at a time of global vaccine shortages.

14 May 2021

Gavi’s Seth Berkley named one of the world’s greatest leaders by Fortune

Dr Berkley is recognised alongside other world-changing vaccine champions in this year’s list for their part in the fight against COVID-19.

12 May 2021

Kenya completes its first round of COVID-19 vaccinations

After some initial hesitancy amongst health workers, Kenya has successfully rolled out the first batch of COVID-19 vaccine doses.

12 May 2021

The Long View: Masking Trouble

As the Spanish flu of 1918-1920 tore through America, a San Francisco mayor bet on the potential of face masks to contain the spread. Then, like today, the demand to mask up met resistance that blended distrust, ideology and gut feeling.

11 May 2021

Covering COVID-19 in Guyana’s ‘Deep South’

The indigenous people adopted measures that were more applicable to the challenges but also their reality. And I tried to illustrate that in my story.

11 May 2021

Mounting evidence suggests COVID vaccines do reduce transmission. How does this work?

Vaccination is likely to substantially reduce virus transmission by reducing the pool of people who become infected, and reducing virus levels in people who get infected.

11 May 2021

Working towards vaccine equity to leave no one behind

Country and community perspectives on realising the targets of the Immunisation Agenda 2030.

10 May 2021

The Next Pandemic: Hantavirus?

Spread from rodents to humans, old and new world Hantavirus has become endemic in many continents, but are sporadic cases of person-to-person transmission strong enough evidence to fear its pandemic potential?

10 May 2021

Next Steps for a People’s Vaccine

The Biden administration’s decision to stop opposing a proposed COVID-19 waiver of certain intellectual-property rights under World Trade Organization rules is a welcome move. But ending the pandemic also requires scaling up knowledge and…

10 May 2021

When refusing a COVID-19 vaccine isn’t about hesitancy

The reasons why people may not take a COVID-19 vaccine even when offered can be complex and varied, but they point to the need to tackle them better if we are to improve vaccine coverage.

10 May 2021

COVID-19 vaccines bring relief to Ugandans living with HIV

The pandemic has been tough for the 1.4 million Ugandans living with HIV, but the arrival of the COVID-19 vaccine has brought some welcome relief.

7 May 2021

Expediting COVID-19 vaccination could prevent millions of deaths and save billions of dollars

Increasing vaccination coverage by even 1% can save thousands of lives and millions of dollars in medical and economic costs.

7 May 2021

Lagos learning the hard way

The rollout of the first phase of the COVID-19 vaccination exercise has not been without its challenges but there is a focus on learning and improving.

7 May 2021

The US adds it support to patent waivers for COVID-19 vaccines

As countries worldwide are suffering from COVID-19 vaccine shortages, sharing intellectual property and know-how, and easing trade bans on the export of raw materials, could ease supply bottlenecks.

7 May 2021

Weather forecasts a ‘life-saving tool against meningitis’

Meningitis affects more than 30,000 people in Africa every year. Scientists use weather data to predict location and scale of impending cases. The prediction helps country-level health services to plan emergency responses.

7 May 2021

COVID vaccines: why waiving patents won’t fix global shortage – scientist explains

Increasing skills and the availability of raw materials would be a bigger boost for vaccine production right now.

6 May 2021

Oxford vaccine professor: rich countries have a moral duty to share their COVID-19 shots

We cannot look back in the future and know we could have done more.

6 May 2021

The Next Pandemic: Another coronavirus?

Even before SARS-CoV-2 swept around the world, scientists had been warning of the global threat posed by viruses like it. Although COVID-19 vaccines should help to end the current coronavirus pandemic, it is unlikely to be the last.

6 May 2021

Emerging lessons from Africa’s COVID-19 vaccine rollout

With 47 African countries now rolling out COVID-19 vaccines and over 17 million doses given on the continent, early insights from Africa’s largest-ever immunization drive offer hope, inspiration and early, yet vital lessons. Here, we shine a…

5 May 2021

Why Indian hospitals are running out of medical oxygen and how to fix it

Investment in bedside oxygen production could make hospitals more resilient in the face of COVID-19.

5 May 2021

What are the most effective ways to improve vaccination rates?

Vaccines are one of our greatest success stories, but vaccination rates for many diseases have been stalling; this has been exacerbated with the disruption caused by Covid-19. Anna Mouser sets out the evidence on what works, and what doesn’t, for…

4 May 2021

Reaching communities with immunisation in South Sudan

To reach zero-dose children in conflict states like South Sudan, social mobilisers like Nyok Daniel are crucial to winning the trust and support of local communities.

4 May 2021

The Next Pandemic: Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever?

Climate change, changes in land use, recreational activities and the trade of infected animals could make this fatal disease more commonplace.

4 May 2021

There will be no recovery without equity

The impact of COVID-19 threatens to reverse hard-worn strides in global health. Without immediate investments, we will miss our chance to save lives and help countries recover from the pandemic and build the human capital needed for a resilient…

3 May 2021

The Key to Beating COVID-19

Although it is only natural and proper for governments to focus on vaccinating their citizens first, it is important not to lose sight of the big picture. The only way we can beat COVID-19 is to defeat it everywhere, and the best way to do that…

3 May 2021

Why routine immunisation is vital for pandemic preparedness

Trying to control a pandemic can feel like being in a warzone, yet even as we fight COVID-19 we still need to keep one eye on the future and potential emerging pandemics. Dr Velislava Petrova, senior manager in vaccine policy and investment at…

3 May 2021

Are COVID-19 vaccine expiration dates too cautious?

Distributing COVID-19 vaccines has been challenging, meaning in some cases vaccines are being delivered close to their expiration date; but the WHO is urging countries to hold on to the doses while it assesses whether shelf lives can be extended…

3 May 2021

Gavi signs agreement with Moderna to secure doses on behalf of COVAX Facility

The signed advance purchase agreement (APA) is for up to 500 million doses of the COVID-19 vaccine manufactured by Moderna. Supply via the agreement will take place from the second half of 2021 through 2022, with options in place to address the…

30 April 2021

The Pandemic Within the Pandemic

Globally, antibiotic use in hospitals has surged since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and over-the-counter sales, legal in many countries, have soared. This is further fueling the global crisis of antimicrobial resistance, as bacteria evolve…

30 April 2021

“Losing my job wasn’t the biggest problem”: A family’s journey through COVID-19 in Ghana

The Safo family, with a seven-year-old son with a number of medical conditions, know all too well what it’s like to have to readjust their lives and limits to accommodate a new reality. The delivery of Ghana’s first batch of COVID-19 vaccines by…

30 April 2021

The vaccinators fighting polio in Rawalpindi

In pockets of vaccine resistance like Fauji Colony in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, children remain at risk of crippling polio. VaccinesWork meets the polio workers going door-to-door to change minds and protect children’s futures.

29 April 2021

The next pandemic: Lassa fever?

Like many potentially pandemic diseases, Lassa fever is spread by a virus carried by animals – in this case, rats – and in West Africa where it is endemic, it can be as dangerous as Ebola or COVID-19.

29 April 2021

Turning a short-term crisis into long-term change

Often, crisis responses and emergency funding do not lead to significant structural changes because their goal is to provide immediate relief, not drive long-term shifts. Immediate crisis relief and long-term structural changes, however, can…

29 April 2021

Understanding vaccine hesitancy: Cha’s story

A new documentary tells a powerful tale of families overcoming every obstacle to protect their children from vaccine preventable disease.

29 April 2021

All aboard! Cameroon’s race to vaccinate every child

Cameroonian health workers are going the distance to reach the remote Island of Manoka on a quest to ensure that no child is left behind.

29 April 2021

Helping children thrive through soap and vaccines

In Uttar Pradesh, India, over 1,000 children die every day from preventable diseases. Gavi’s long-standing partnership with Unilever and Lifebuoy has helped to reach 2.5 million people with essential vaccines and soap, while also leveraging the…

28 April 2021

How are vaccines made?

There are a broad range of different types of vaccine, but one thing they usually have in common is that they are inherently biological. That means that often their ingredients need to be grown.

28 April 2021

Vaccines Explained

Vaccines save millions of lives a year, but what exactly is a vaccine and what goes into making one? And how do we know they are safe? Here, we talk about every aspect of vaccines and why they are so important for our health.

28 April 2021

Exercise boosts immunity and makes vaccines more effective – new study

Meeting the recommended guidelines for physical activity reduces the risk of falling ill and dying of infectious diseases by 37%.

27 April 2021

Reaching zero-dose children in Rajasthan

9.7 million children in 57 Gavi-supported countries remain unvaccinated and at risk. Why are these children missing out? In Bikaner, Rajasthan, VaccinesWork meets two families who simply never landed on the health system’s radar.

27 April 2021

COVID-19 in India: an unfolding humanitarian crisis

Stories of reaching herd immunity were certainly premature.

26 April 2021

Long View: An Indian Queen’s “Vaccine Selfie” in Oils

Why a 19th century portrait of three southern Indian noblewomen is “one of the most important scientific pictures in the history of medicine in India.”

26 April 2021

Immunization services begin slow recovery from COVID-19 disruptions, though millions of children remain at risk from deadly diseases

Geneva/New York, 26 April 2021 – While immunization services have started to recover from disruptions caused by COVID-19, millions of children remain vulnerable to deadly diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF and Gavi, the Vaccine…

26 April 2021

The Zero-Dose Child: Explained

Despite decades of progress increasing access to immunisation in lower-income countries, nearly 10 million children still go without basic, routine vaccines every year. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is now focusing on reaching these zero-dose…

23 April 2021

Malaria vaccine achieves 77% efficacy in seasonal setting in study of African children

The R21/Matrix-M vaccine is the first to show promise of hitting the World Health Organisation’s target of 75% efficacy against malaria.

23 April 2021

France makes important vaccine dose donation to COVAX

Today, to mark the first year of the creation of the Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator, President Emmanuel Macron announced that France has begun sharing vaccine doses with COVAX, starting with a first batch of 105,600 doses – with 500,…

23 April 2021

COVAX rolls out in Angola

Over half a million doses of COVID-19 vaccines arrived in Angola in March, delivered through the COVAX initiative. VaccinesWork talked to some of the first beneficiaries.

23 April 2021

Why is India’s COVID-19 pandemic skyrocketing?

When the pandemic started, India defied expectations by having a milder outbreak than had been predicted. Now, it is seeing a deadly second wave that is bringing the country’s health system to its knees – so what is behind this, and how much is…

22 April 2021

The next pandemic: Marburg?

A deadly cousin of Ebola, Marburg can kill nine out of ten people it infects, and international travel has taken it from Africa to Europe twice in the past 40 years. Will increasing globalisation make this virus more likely to erupt around the…

22 April 2021

Mysterious Ailment, Mysterious Relief: Vaccines Help Some Covid Long Haulers

Scientists who study the post-illness syndrome are taking a close look at patients’ reports of this unexpected benefit of the vaccine.

22 April 2021

Tales from the COVID frontline: An Angolan filmmaker takes on COVID-19

Óscar Gil Pereira is one of Angola’s most celebrated filmmakers. Last year he became one of the 24,000 people in Angola to contract COVID-19. After beating the disease, he is now vaccinated and committed to celebrating the health worker heroes…

22 April 2021

Ivermectin: why a potential COVID treatment isn’t recommended for use

The antiparasitic drug was thought to be a potential treatment for COVID-19, but there isn't sufficient evidence to recommend its use, despite widespread support online.

21 April 2021

What ingredients go into a vaccine?

Vaccines contain active ingredients that trigger an immune response to viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. But in order to work well, it is important that they also contain other key ingredients to keep them safe and effective.

21 April 2021

Are We Risking a Debt Pandemic?

The prospect of recovery from the COVID-19 crisis makes it all the more urgent to have a firm vision of how the burden of public debt can be reduced once the coronavirus has been vanquished. For this reason, every country must work on itself and…

20 April 2021

Resourceful Optimism: Fighting COVID-19 in Afghanistan

The pandemic has strained most countries’ health systems. Afghanistan has faced more hurdles than most.

20 April 2021

Scientists have spent nearly 100 years searching for a better way to give vaccines

We didn’t have to be stuck with needles.

20 April 2021

Serious blood clots “more likely” with COVID-19 infection than vaccine

Study suggests the risk of a serious brain clot is up to ten times higher in people with COVID-19 infections, compared to those receiving a COVID-19 vaccine.

20 April 2021

COVAX: A new standard for global innovation and partnership

COVAX has a critical role to play in ending the acute phase of the pandemic. The initiative could also be a model for how we address some of the most urgent development challenges of our time, from climate change to poverty reduction.

19 April 2021

“A ray of sunshine”: COVAX vaccines reinvigorate health workers in Eswatini

The delivery of vaccines has gone a long way to alleviating the fears and pressure on healthcare workers in Eswatini.

19 April 2021

How long does immunity last after COVID-19 vaccination?

Millions of doses of COVID-19 vaccines are being delivered across the world, but what do we know about how long will immunity last?

19 April 2021

An expert explains how to track coronavirus variants

New Covid-19 variants could potentially jeopardise a lot of the work that has been done so far to contain the pandemic. Sonia Gonçalves explains how genomic surveillance can help us track and contain them.

16 April 2021

Traditional and religious leaders spearhead COVID-19 immunisation in Malawi

Communities often look to their traditional and religious leaders when it comes to advice on how to live. In Malawi, they are stepping to the fore.

16 April 2021

Women on the frontline: delivering COVID-19 vaccines on the Kenya-Somalia border

Al-Shabaab has forced the shutdown of health facilities close to the Somalia border in Northern Kenya. A group of women activists are fighting back, ensuring COVID-19 vaccines reach the most vulnerable.

16 April 2021

COVID-19: does exercising really reduce the risk?

New research suggests people who exercise for 150 minutes a week are half as likely to die from COVID-19 compared to those who are consistently inactive.

15 April 2021

No VIP treatment: Malawi aims for an equitable COVID-19 vaccine roll-out

Since the first consignment of COVAX doses arrived in Malawi in mid-March, vaccination centres like Chileka Health Centre, just outside Blantyre, have recorded enthusiastic turn-out.

15 April 2021

COVID-19 ‘led to rise in stillbirths, maternal deaths’

Maternal health in low- and middle-income countries hit hard by COVID-19. Global review analysed stillbirth, maternal death rates from 17 countries. Maternity care must be prioritised during global health crisis, says report 

15 April 2021

Global leaders rally to accelerate access to COVID-19 vaccines for lower-income countries

The “One World Protected” Event, hosted today by the United States and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, launched a campaign to raise US$ 2 billion for the global fight against COVID-19.

14 April 2021

The Long View: Ye Olde Anti-Vaxxers

As long as there have been vaccines, a vocal minority of public voices have made it their mission to rile up their communities against vaccination. In Montréal, in 1885, those voices were successful – and the results were deadly.

14 April 2021

“I can only run away from death for so long”: Vaccinating Elders in Eswatini

The delivery of COVID-19 vaccines to Eswatini through COVAX means the elderly now have the chance to protect themselves against the disease. VaccinesWork visits a vaccination session in Lobamba.

13 April 2021

Will summer slow the spread of COVID-19? New research sheds light

The seasons can affect transmission of the virus – but this will likely be dwarfed by the impact of public health measures.

13 April 2021

How to Stop the Poverty Pandemic

Experience shows that innovative and evidence-based approaches, when executed well, can dent poverty. With the COVID-19 pandemic threatening to reverse hard-won global gains, the need for policy-relevant research, and for scaling effective…

13 April 2021

What does it take to deliver COVID-19 vaccines?

Ending the COVID-19 crisis hinges on all countries being able to vaccinate their people. A lot goes into getting ready.

12 April 2021

Protecting Uganda’s overstretched health workers through COVAX

Over 50 health workers in Uganda have lost their lives to COVID-19 – a huge toll for a country with just 0.17 doctors per thousand people in some areas. With remaining health workers overworked and vulnerable, some relief has come in the form of…

12 April 2021

The Long View: The World’s First Vaccination Campaign

At the turn of the 19th century, news of a 1796 medical breakthrough called 'vaccination' started to spread around the world. A fascinating recent book, War Against Smallpox by Michael Bennett, traces the subsequent dissemination of the actual…

12 April 2021

Rolling out COVID-19 vaccines in Rwanda

Kigali – Forty-eight hours after Rwanda received shipments of COVID-19 vaccines, vaccinations began in earnest, with high-risk population given priority. The country plans to vaccinate a third of the population in 2021 and double that figure next…

9 April 2021

Getting from zero to 100% – ensuring every child has routine immunisation

New data shows that investing in getting that first vaccination to children can be a turning point in getting them fully immunised.

9 April 2021

Lockdown mental fatigue rapidly reversed by social contact, study finds

The study found people bounce back from their mental sluggishness soon after emerging from isolation.

9 April 2021

A year of #VaccinesWork in 10 articles answering your most frequently asked questions

To mark one year of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the articles that answer the most frequently asked questions about COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.

8 April 2021

Protecting human rights in the COVAX roll-out

The COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest economic and social crisis of a lifetime. Human rights are key in shaping our collective pandemic response, both for the public health emergency and the broader impact on people’s lives and livelihoods.

8 April 2021

What is the blood clotting disorder the AstraZeneca vaccine has been linked to?

The European Medicines Agency has concluded that there is a possible link between AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine and very rare blood clots. But what are these clots and how great is the risk?

8 April 2021

How geospatial technology is helping Nigeria’s COVID-19 vaccine roll-out

In a huge country like Nigeria, ensuring the right people receive COVAX vaccines is not just a question of how, but where. Could geospatial technology, trialled during previous polio campaigns, make a difference?

8 April 2021

Bacteria 'shuffle' their genetics around to develop antibiotic resistance on demand

A genetic trick called an integron plays an important role in helping bacteria do this.

8 April 2021

Should I get a COVID-19 vaccine if I’ve already had COVID-19?

Natural infection with the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 may not lead to long-lasting immunity, so it is important to get the vaccine as well.

8 April 2021

COVAX reaches over 100 economies, 42 days after first international delivery

The COVAX Facility has now delivered life-saving vaccines to over 100 economies since making its first international delivery to Ghana on February 24th.

7 April 2021

The age of modern vaccines: An Abridged History of Vaccines, Part 2

As the 19th century entered its final quarter, “vaccination” meant one thing: immunisation with cowpox against deadly smallpox. By the end of the 20th century, safe and effective vaccines existed against 26 killer diseases. In the second part of…

7 April 2021

Can a COVID-19 vaccine give me COVID?

Currently approved vaccines incorporate viral proteins or the instructions for making them, but they do not contain any live virus.

7 April 2021

Quality, Speed & Equity

Immunization and vaccination experts from around the world outlined the current state of the world’s vaccination campaigns while addressing the urgent needs and concerns regarding public trust in the efficacy of vaccines; access and challenges.…

6 April 2021

The end of the pandemic is coming – just don't set a date for the party

History tells us that the end of pandemics are rarely – if ever – neat, uncomplicated, or even easy to date.

6 April 2021

The next pandemic: yellow fever?

In the 19th century, yellow fever had taken hold of parts of Europe and the USA, especially the Deep South, killing thousands. Now mostly in Africa and South America, this mosquito-borne disease could spread at any moment, threatening public…

1 April 2021

Arriving at the First Vaccine: An Abridged History of Vaccination, Part 1

As early as the 1500s, efforts to halt the spread of smallpox included risky procedures designed to trigger immunity. By the 1800s, these methods – collectively termed “variolation” – had been supplanted by the earliest example of a new, safer…

1 April 2021

How does resistance to disinfectants happen? We're on the road to answering the question

The increased use of disinfectants could allow for the development of bacterial strains which are resistant to disinfectants.

1 April 2021

Somalia rolls out vaccines for COVID-19


On 15 March 2020, Somalia received 300 000 doses of Oxford AstraZeneca vaccines from the COVAX Facility to protect frontline workers and elderly people with chronic health conditions from COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) hears…

1 April 2021

Relieved and hopeful: Reflections after my first COVAX vaccine

In March, Mukami received her first COVAX vaccine dose. As a woman in her 60s living in Kenya, she has priority access to COVAX vaccines, alongside other high-risk groups like health care workers and people with underlying diseases. Here she…

31 March 2021

The Long View: What does water mean to the world?

On 22 March 2021, the world marked World Water Day, with the theme for this year’s celebration being “valuing water.” What can the long history of water’s connection with health teach us about its true value to the world?

31 March 2021

How Can Covid Vaccines Be Safe When They Were Developed So Fast?

Experts say there’s nothing new about the research underpinning the covid vaccines and that they were tested in more participants than many other approved vaccines.

31 March 2021

Why we need to share vaccine doses now and why COVAX is the right way to do it

Covid-19 vaccination efforts are picking up worldwide, bringing hopes of returning to a more normal life. Vaccines are now starting to reach countries across the globe through the COVAX initiative, set up to promote equitable access to vaccines…

30 March 2021

We know hand dryers can circulate germs through the air. Why are they still used everywhere?

What side are you on, paper or dryer? In either case, here's the bottom line on what to do after using the toilet.

30 March 2021

Patient Zero: Understanding how new coronavirus variants emerge

By understanding the circumstances that make viral evolution more likely, we stand a better chance of staying a step ahead.

30 March 2021

The COVAX Humanitarian Buffer Explained

COVAX was designed to ensure the most vulnerable in every country get access to COVID-19 vaccines. But what about people in conflict zones or humanitarian settings that can’t be reached by government vaccination campaigns? Last week Gavi approved…

30 March 2021

COVID-19 vaccines: assessing country readiness

The key insights from the assessments to date present a high-level snapshot of country readiness to deploy COVID-19 vaccines based on initial findings from ongoing assessments in 128 countries.

29 March 2021

A year of #VaccinesWork in 10 articles looking at vaccine-preventable diseases other than COVID-19

To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most read articles on diseases other than COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.

29 March 2021

5 things to know after you’ve had a COVID-19 vaccine

As more and more people get vaccinated against COVID-19, some are worrying about how ‘normal’ their side effects are. Here’s what you need to know.

29 March 2021

Going universal: The search for an all-in-one coronavirus vaccine

Instead of working to make vaccines against each unique coronavirus or variant, what if we could provide broad protection across the field through an all-in-one coronavirus shot?

29 March 2021

United States to host launch event for Gavi COVAX AMC 2021 investment opportunity

The virtual event will bring together world leaders, the private sector, civil society, and key technical partners to galvanize resources and commitment to the Gavi COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC).

26 March 2021

We must better protect wildlife to prevent future pandemics

Wuhan investigation points to wildlife as likely source of COVID-19. Climate change and illegal trade are increasing risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Wildlife protection, surveillance of zoonosis are key to early detection of ‘spillover…

26 March 2021

“We’re closer to getting some normalcy back in our lives”: COVAX gets underway in Ghana

Ghana became the first African country to receive vaccines through the COVAX initiative in February. Meet one of the nurses spearheading the vaccination effort.

26 March 2021

The next pandemic: H5N1 and H7N9 influenza?

More than 100 years after the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic, type A influenza virus not only poses one of the largest threats to the modern world, but the risk of spill-over of avian influenza from poultry to humans is growing.

26 March 2021

What we learned from tracking every COVID policy in the world

For one year, 600 people tracked 20 types of coronavirus restriction in 186 countries – here's what they found out.

25 March 2021

The growing threat of pandemics

Whilst COVID-19 caught the world off guard, the speed at which it spread and the extent of its impact on people’s lives came as a great shock to most. However, some were not surprised at all.

25 March 2021

Keeping It Cool: A visit to Ghana’s national vaccine storage facility

Ghana became the first African country to receive COVAX doses in February, kicking off a mammoth logistical effort in the country to get these doses to the frontline workers that need them. #VaccinesWork spoke to the cold chain experts making it…

25 March 2021

Africa’s had a 30% rise in COVID-19 cases in the second wave

The continent had a milder first wave than the rest of the world, but research suggests that relaxed public health measures led to the coronavirus rebounding with a vengeance the second time around.

24 March 2021

A year of #VaccinesWork in 10 articles from around the world

To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most-read articles on how countries have been navigating COVID-19 during an unprecedentedly challenging year for global health.

24 March 2021

Why is a global Covid-19 vaccine rollout vital?

The Covid-19 pandemic is global, and to bring the pandemic to a close, a collaborative, global approach is needed. But why is it so important that all countries have access to vaccines as soon as possible?

24 March 2021

Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine's rollercoaster ride continues, but latest results again suggest it is safe and effective

These results can help allay previous concerns in Europe about a lack of trial data for older people.

24 March 2021

COVID-19 vaccines: could a squirt up the nose be just as good as a shot in the arm?

There are several COVID-19 vaccines being used around the world, but all need to be injected and some need ultra-cold refrigeration. Could next-generation intranasal vaccines be a quicker and easier way of protecting ourselves?

24 March 2021

How far away are we from a new TB vaccine?

Tuberculosis kills millions of people each year, but several recent advances in vaccine development are providing fresh hope.

23 March 2021

The next pandemic: Chikungunya?

The tiger mosquito that carries the chikungunya virus is now moving into new habitats in Europe and America thanks to climate change. This means the once tropical disease could soon become a global pandemic threat.

23 March 2021

An Ounce of Pandemic Prevention

The global response to the coronavirus pandemic, for all its flaws, has yielded impressive results by ignoring traditional bureaucratic and sectoral silos. That should spur us to raise our ambitions for global public health, with an emphasis on…

23 March 2021

Why COVID-19 makes you lose your sense of smell and how to get it back

The virus appears to attack support cells at the back of the nose, but “smell training” may help people to recover their missing sense.

23 March 2021

What is Africa’s vaccine production capacity?

Accra, 18 March 2021 – COVID-19 vaccination in Africa is gathering pace, with more than 7 million doses so far administered. But the continent received vaccines later than other regions of the world and in limited quantity. A few weeks after…

22 March 2021

“I serve my nation through my profession”: Community vaccinators in Afghanistan

Community vaccinators go where fixed health centres can’t reach. In Afghanistan, that means fighting Taliban injunctions, entrenched gender imbalances and difficult terrain, all to ensure the nation’s children are protected.

22 March 2021

Tariah Adams: on tap for women and girls’ right to water, sanitation and hygiene

In today’s blog post, we’re featuring a fierce and passionate female WASH advocate from Nigeria. Tariah Adams, a Senior Communications and Advocacy Officer for White Ribbon Alliance Nigeria and campaign mobilizer, she has a personal interest in…

22 March 2021

Learning Beyond the Classroom

At the end of the year 2019, we created an elaborate 2020 plan for our projects at Beyond the Classroom Foundation. As we got closer to our second project scheduled for the end of March, the government imposed a lockdown, banning all public…

22 March 2021

COVID shows infectious disease is our greatest threat to global security

Unlike traditional security threats, infectious disease can’t be solved through sanctions, military posturing, deterrence or bilateral diplomacy, but rather through scientific collaboration, long-term investments in global health and resilient…

19 March 2021

The next pandemic: Ebola?

Ebola has so far only affected African countries, and occasional cases outside of the continent have been rapidly contained. But the virus could mutate to spread more easily between people, making it more of a pandemic threat.

19 March 2021

A year of #VaccinesWork in 10 articles celebrating women in global health

To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most read articles on COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.

19 March 2021

Homework: Trial and Error

So far, homeschooling has been trial and error because it’s difficult to keep the twins calm and engaged for long periods of time. We have no fixed curriculum and use online educational programs as a guide. 

19 March 2021

The next pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic wasn’t the first to devastate the world and it won’t be the last. In a new series, we round up emerging infectious threats that have the potential to erupt into global pandemics.

18 March 2021

“We’ll all be fine”: COVID-19 vaccines arrive at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra

After a difficult year, the vaccination roll-out is underway at Ghana’s premier medical facility, where health workers dare to hope that things can go back to normal.

18 March 2021

John Nkengasong on Africa's Vaccine Game Plan

John Nkengasong is the Director of the Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is also the WHO special envoy for Africa. John spoke to CovidHQAfrica desk about a range of issues including his vision for the vaccines in Africa, and…

18 March 2021

No "us versus them": why equitable inclusion of all migrants in COVID-19 vaccine plans is essential

COVID-19 has demonstrated that viruses not only know no borders, but they also do not discriminate based on immigration status. Failing to take migrants into account in our vaccination efforts would hamper the effectiveness of these campaigns and…

17 March 2021

A year of #VaccinesWork in 10 COVID-19 articles

To mark the first anniversary of #VaccinesWork, we look back at some of the most read articles on COVID-19 during an unprecedented year for global health.

17 March 2021

Should I invest in a pulse oximeter?

Sales of medical devices that measure the oxygen saturation of blood are booming thanks to the COVID-19 pandemic. But are they worth the investment?

17 March 2021

Dormant virus reawakening may have triggered Ebola outbreak

Genetic sequencing has linked the recent outbreak of Ebola disease to a survivor of the 2014-16 West Africa epidemic, meaning the virus could have laid dormant in one survivor for over five years. What does this mean for our efforts to control…

17 March 2021

Nigeria rallies over 7,000 traditional leaders against COVID-19

Abuja, 12 March 2021 – As the second wave of COVID-19 affects the global health and economic community, the World Health Organization (WHO) is supporting government to engage strategic stakeholders as part of concerted efforts to reverse the…

16 March 2021

How can supply keep up with demand for COVID-19 vaccines?

With the historic global roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines in full swing, bottlenecks in the supply chain are inevitable as manufacturing output tries to keep pace with demand. A manufacturing supply chain summit last week outlined potential…

16 March 2021

Vaccine Altruists Find Appointments for Those Who Can’t

An army of volunteers help people who otherwise would have had difficulty securing a covid vaccination because of cumbersome computer or telephone registration systems.

16 March 2021

Does the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine really cause blood clots?

Various countries have halted the use of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, while reports of blood clots are investigated. Here’s what we know so far.

15 March 2021

Battling misinformation wars in Africa: applying lessons from GMOs to COVID-19

For anyone who has worked on crop improvement in Africa over the last three decades, the flood of misinformation around vaccines evokes an eerie sense of déjà vu.

15 March 2021

The next pandemic: Nipah virus?

Nipah virus can kill as many as three out of four people it infects. Since the fruit bat that carries the virus often comes into contact with humans, here we explain why the development of drugs and vaccines for the disease is becoming…

12 March 2021

Why do some people with COVID-19 get sicker than others?

Our immune systems are supposed to defend us from invading pathogens but, in the case of COVID-19, an immune overreaction may be to blame for severe illness.

12 March 2021

'Like being hit with a cricket bat’: A doctor’s battle with long COVID

Dr Paul Garner, a British infectious disease expert at the UK’s Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine caught COVID-19 early in 2020, and then developed Long COVID. Here, he talks frankly with Gavi about his experiences, how he recovered and how…

12 March 2021

When can children get the COVID-19 vaccine? 5 questions parents are asking

COVID-19 vaccine testing on children is just getting started, and only in adolescents.

12 March 2021

Why Ebola is back in Guinea and why the response must be different this time

The virus is always present in nature and when circumstances allow, it may jump from one species to another.

11 March 2021

The Long View: A history of quarantine

Since COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, many countries around the world imposed some form of quarantine to control its spread. What can the history of quarantine teach us about isolation and lockdowns now?

11 March 2021

Diphtheria may resurface as a ‘major global threat’ study warns.

Researchers identify bacterial variants that may be evolving resistance to antimicrobials and vaccines.

11 March 2021

Ten lessons from Ogun State - from first COVID-19 case in Nigeria to building a resilient response

Vivianne Ihekweazu (Lead writer): On the day marking one year since the first COVID-19 case was reported in Nigeria, this article reflects on the experience and lessons learnt from the Honourable Commissioner for Health, Dr. Tomi Coker as she led…

10 March 2021

At the end of the tunnel: the virus – then the vaccine – reach a remote Himalayan valley

For the people of Lahaul, the opening of a new high-altitude tunnel ends years of wintertime isolation – and opens a vital route of access for COVID-19 vaccines.

10 March 2021

AstraZeneca vaccine: careless talk has dented confidence and uptake in Europe

Stockpiles of this vaccine are going unused in France and Germany, and unfounded criticism of it may be partly to blame.

9 March 2021

Keeping the Cold Chain Cold: The Importance of Maintenance

This is the third in a three-part series highlighting key lessons learned since the launch, four years ago, of the Cold Chain Equipment Optimization Platform (CCEOP), established by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to ensure optimal cold chain…

9 March 2021

Private sector innovation meets public health expectations

This is the second in a three-part series highlighting key lessons learned since the launch, four years ago, of the Cold Chain Equipment Optimization Platform (CCEOP), established by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to ensure optimal cold chain…

9 March 2021

Breaking the glass vial: Women at the forefront of COVID-19 vaccine

Leaders in global health have been working on COVAX – a global initiative to ensure the fair distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. Some of the top jobs are held by a diverse group of women, so in honour of International Women's Day we'd like to…

8 March 2021

International Women's Day 2021

For this year's International Women's Day VaccinesWork has interviewed a number of women leaders and front line workers who represent this year's IWD theme: #ChooseToChallenge

8 March 2021

International Women’s Day 2021: “Women come to me and I guide them”

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Nighat Rani, a vaccinator in Pakistan, shows how her work rests on a bedrock of female empathy and understanding…

8 March 2021

International Women’s Day: Chizoba Wonodi on the importance of a good mentor

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Professor Chizoba Wonodi, Founder of Women Advocates for Vaccine Access in Nigeria and Country Director at the…

8 March 2021

International Women’s Day: Quarraisha Abdool Karim on the fight against HIV

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Professor Quarraisha Abdool Karim, epidemiologist and associate scientific director for CAPRISA – the Centre for…

8 March 2021

International Women’s Day: Heidi Larson and the fight against vaccine hesitancy

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Professor Heidi Larson, Founding Director of the Vaccine Confidence Project, explains how gender can affect…

8 March 2021

International Women’s Day: Caring for Everyone: an ASHA worker’s COVID-19 story

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Rathnamma P, an 'ASHA' in Bengaluru, India, explains how the country's army of one million female community health…

8 March 2021

International Women’s Day: Anuradha Gupta on ‘choose to challenge’

This International Women’s Day Vaccines Work is hosting a series of interviews with inspirational women from across the world. Here Anuradha Gupta, Gavi’s Deputy CEO, explains what ‘choose to challenge’ – this year’s IWD theme – means to her.

5 March 2021

The value of COVID-19 vaccines in children: Roadmap for a safer world

To make the world safe from COVID-19, we need everyone vaccinated, including children. To get back to normality, we also need vaccinated adults, ongoing safety measures, safe re-opening of schools, access to all recommended vaccines – and…

5 March 2021

The Long View: A little less hesitation, a little more action - Elvis and the polio vaccine

As political and public health leaders across the world work to encourage people to get vaccinated against COVID-19, what can they learn from the King of Rock ‘n’ Roll getting jabbed?

5 March 2021

The ins and outs of Kenya's COVID-19 vaccine rollout plan

Reaching the goals of the plan requires the best possible interaction between public and private -for profit and not-for-profit - healthcare sectors.

4 March 2021

Drone delivered COVID-19 vaccines take to the air

The first deliveries of up to 2.5 million doses of COVAX vaccines by autonomous drone began this week in Ghana.

4 March 2021

What is COVID-19 vaccine efficacy?

Several vaccines that have become available have shown different levels of efficacy. So what is vaccine efficacy? Dr Lee Hampton, a paediatrician and medical epidemiologist with Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, explains.

3 March 2021

Scientists edge closer to a universal flu vaccine

A vaccine that apparently protects animals against multiple strains of flu has been created by tethering a relatively unchanging part of the surface proteins found on the virus to nanoparticles.

3 March 2021

How to make sure COVID-19 vaccines reach as many people as possible

As more COVID-19 vaccines become available, countries the world over are now faced with the daunting task of carrying out mass vaccinations. Here, one expert explains how her organisation is supporting rollouts in the US and offers insights into…

3 March 2021

Why I volunteered to be infected with coronavirus

Most people have been doing everything they can to avoid getting COVID-19, but in the coming days British history student Jacob Hopkins has chosen to be deliberately infected with SARS-CoV-2 as part of the world’s first Challenge Trial. He…

2 March 2021

COVID vaccines: how to make sense of reports on their effectiveness

Real-world studies of vaccines aren't directly comparable with clinical trials, but their results are still good news.

2 March 2021

5 reasons to believe the COVID-19 pandemic might be slowing down

COVID-19 cases are falling week on week, so can we allow ourselves to be hopeful?

1 March 2021

The first COVAX vaccinations begin

COVID-19 vaccination campaigns using COVAX-funded doses commenced today in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, the first global rollout.

26 February 2021

Country readiness for COVID-19 vaccines

This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines – from how they work and how they’re made to ensuring safety and equitable access – in WHO’s Vaccines Explained series.

26 February 2021

COVAX vaccines take to the air by drone

Ghana is not only the first country to receive a shipment of COVAX vaccines, but it will be the first to broaden its reach by delivering them by drone. The new partnership with Zipline and UPS Foundation will see 2.5 million doses delivered this…

26 February 2021

COVID-19: what happens if some countries don't vaccinate?

Even those that live in areas where the population has already been vaccinated would not be totally protected if the virus mutates elsewhere.

25 February 2021

Planning for Success: Project Management Teams for the CCEOP

The first in a three-part series of blogs highlighting key lessons learned since the launch, four years ago, of the Cold Chain Equipment Optimization Platform (CCEOP), established by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to ensure optimal cold chain…

25 February 2021

How Roald Dahl became a passionate vaccine advocate

Roald Dahl's daughter Olivia died of measles aged seven.

24 February 2021

Why vaccine side effects might be more common in people who've already had COVID-19

Minor side effects are a normal sign that the immune system is mounting a protective response following vaccination, although they aren’t universal.

24 February 2021

Ebola strikes West Africa again: key questions and lessons from the past

Countries in the West Africa region are in a very different position to seven years ago. They now have the experience of the past as well as new tools to tackle Ebola.

23 February 2021

Real-world data supports the use of AstraZeneca vaccine in older individuals

Vaccine data from Scotland provides reassurance that the Oxford-AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines will significantly reduce hospitalisations and deaths from COVID-19 among older people after the first dose.

23 February 2021

African countries have an advantage in rolling out Covid-19 vaccines

The continent is one of the most experienced regions in the world in dealing with disease outbreaks.

23 February 2021

Why do antibodies fade after a COVID-19 infection, and will the same thing happen with vaccines?

Maintaining antibodies in the blood requires creating certain long-lasting immune cells – but this doesn't always happen.

23 February 2021

Will we ever get rid of COVID-19?

The pandemic won’t last forever, but the virus that causes COVID-19 might. Here we look at what we can expect over the next couple of years in a Q&A with Dr Lee Hampton, pediatrician and medical epidemiologist at Gavi.

22 February 2021

How long does immunity last against Ebola?

The tracking of antibodies in Ebola survivors suggests they wax and wane, which could make vaccine booster shots necessary.

22 February 2021

No Time to Waste

Saving the planet from catastrophic climate change will require not only a dramatic increase in funding for clean-energy research and development. We need innovation in policy just as much as in technology.

22 February 2021

The $4 trillion economic cost of not vaccinating the entire world

The world's most advanced economies will incur half the total costs associated with a failure to vaccinate poorer nations, which could exceed $4 trillion if only half their citizens are inoculated.

19 February 2021

Could a universal coronavirus vaccine future-proof our response?

With three major coronavirus outbreaks in the last two decades – first SARS-CoV, then MERS-CoV, and now SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 – another outbreak is inevitable. Scientists are calling for the world to step up the search for a universal…

19 February 2021

What are COVID-19 challenge trials and why do we need them?

A new trial about to start in the UK will deliberately infect people with the virus that causes COVID-19 – if we have vaccines already, why do we need this?

19 February 2021

Tackling pandemic threats proactively

If we are to minimize the impact of future disease outbreaks, we must recognize the importance of immunization and invest in preemptive vaccine development, writes Tim Keys.

19 February 2021

The Long View: 100 years and counting of mask wearing in Japan

As wearing face masks in public becomes the new normal across the world, what can we learn from a country like Japan, where this has been a long-established practice?

18 February 2021

Grab, jab and release: keeping rabies off the streets of Goa

The global effort to contain COVID-19 risks disrupting campaigns against other diseases. Will the fight to control the deadly rabies virus in India be among them?

18 February 2021

The largest global rollout of vaccines in history just got one step closer

The World Health Organization has given the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine an Emergency Use Listing, passing an important milestone before the first delivery of COVAX vaccines worldwide.

18 February 2021

Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 will have side effects – that's a good thing

The side effects of new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are a result of immune system activation. While uncomfortable, they are both normal and expected. They are a sign that the vaccine is working.

18 February 2021

Vaccine Solidarity Now

The G7 has an opportunity to demonstrate global leadership in the COVID-19 pandemic by making the success of the international COVAX vaccine-access facility its top priority. Global solidarity is not only morally right, but also offers the…

17 February 2021

How have Covid-19 vaccines been made quickly and safely?

Unprecedented international cooperation and focus have led to multiple effective and safe Covid-19 vaccines in less than a year, and created a blueprint for future vaccine development. Here's how

17 February 2021

Why having COVID-19 data on men and women is critical

COVID-19 deaths differ among men and women but the differences are not reported. A project is building sex-aggregated data on COVID-19 globally. Such data is key to developing effective solutions to fight COVID-19.

16 February 2021

Side Effects and COVID-19 Vaccines: What to Expect

It’s totally normal to experience side effects from COVID-19 vaccines. Here’s what you need to know.

16 February 2021

Could new outbreaks put Ebola vaccines to the test once again

Guinea is having its first Ebola outbreak since 2016, when West Africa experienced the biggest outbreak ever seen. Could the vaccine that contained previous outbreaks soon be redeployed?

16 February 2021

COVAX Statement on WHO Emergency Use Listing for AstraZeneca/Oxford COVID-19 Vaccine

Geneva / New York / Oslo – 15 February 2021 The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), as co-leads of the COVAX initiative for equitable global access to…

16 February 2021

When will the world be vaccinated against Covid-19?

With the first Covid-19 vaccines in short supply, how do governments decide who gets a vaccine first?

16 February 2021

Is the colonial era still impacting people’s health today?

A new study suggests that historical traumas from the French colonial era may be associated with less trust in modern medicine and lower vaccination rates today.

15 February 2021

COVID-19 variants are not going away, but vaccines may help make that OK

Clinically significant SARS-CoV-2 variants are likely to be here to stay, but multiple COVID-19 vaccines still have a role to play.

15 February 2021

All roads lead to Ocean: how cancer treatment works in Tanzania

In Tanzania, the Ocean Road Cancer Institute is doing its part to ensure that people across the country can receive cancer treatment and care, regardless of their ability to pay.

15 February 2021

The Gavi COVAX AMC Explained

Gavi’s CEO explains how the COVAX Advance Market Commitment mechanism will make COVID-19 vaccines available to lower-income countries.

15 February 2021

Last Mile Delivery: How Borno State is reaching children in conflict zones with routine immunisation services

Maina Modu is the programme manager for Routine Immunisation in Borno State, working with the State Primary Health Care Development Agency (SPHCDA). He coordinates the state emergency routine immunisation coordination centre activities.

15 February 2021

Tackling the COVID Hunger Crisis

The choice facing world leaders is simple: act now to tackle the hunger crisis, or pay a much higher price later. Immediate action will be cheaper and save more lives than responding only after multiple famines have taken hold and a generation’s…

12 February 2021

Community Health Workers, Often Overlooked, Bring Trust to the Pandemic Fight

As the pandemic brings long-standing health disparities into sharper view, community health workers are coming to the forefront in the public health response. This fast-growing workforce help fill the gaps between health care providers and low-…

12 February 2021

A leap forward in vaccine technology

By building on the lessons learned in 2020, it should be possible in the long term to compress vaccine development timelines still further. That would allow healthcare systems to stamp out disease outbreaks much earlier and save many more lives…

12 February 2021

Do COVID-19 variants mean that we need a booster shot for our booster?

Oxford scientists are already working on an updated version of their COVID-19 vaccine to ensure people remain fully protected against new variants of SARS-CoV-2. But how would these be delivered and how often would they be needed? 

12 February 2021

WHO experts have just recommended the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine: here’s what they found

The recommendations offer reassurance amid concern over whether some vaccines are as effective against new variants.

12 February 2021

The Silent Pandemic of Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic resistance has been a slow-growing scourge, fueled in part by relatively weak political support for implementing national action plans and surveillance systems. Because the problem is essentially the result of multiple systems failures…

11 February 2021

Reaching Pakistan’s zero-dose children during the COVID-19 pandemic

In Islamabad’s slums, Gavi-supported Civil Society Human and Institutional Development Programme is ensuring that parents know that their children can be vaccinated safely by following COVID-19 guidelines.

11 February 2021

All aboard the vaccine minibus: getting immunisation back on track in Pakistan

In Pakistan, a life-saving game of immunisation catch-up is underway after the COVID-19 emergency forced over a million children to miss out on routine vaccinations.

11 February 2021

How important are surfaces in the transmission of COVID-19?

Contaminated doorknobs and packaging probably aren’t the main way the coronavirus spreads. But don’t throw away the hand gel and cleaning products just yet.

10 February 2021

Will coronavirus really evolve to become less deadly?

The coronavirus is evolving, but which path it will take is far from certain.

10 February 2021

The Long View: The world's last smallpox patient

Smallpox was one of the deadliest diseases in the world, but it’s the only one in history to have been eradicated globally. One Somali man sat on the frontline of this effort and can inspire the world today as we battle yet another devastating…

9 February 2021

What are 'adverse events' and 'emergency use authorisation' in relation to vaccination?

While vaccines are the safest way to prevent the spread of infectious disease, a tiny proportion of those vaccinated may experience an adverse event. Here, we explain how often this happens and why.

9 February 2021

Here’s how we could stop antimicrobial resistance becoming the next pandemic

Antimicrobial resistance was already a major global health threat, but now the potential increase in the use of antibiotics in response to the pandemic could exacerbate the problem and threaten a potentially even bigger global crisis.

9 February 2021

What’s the most effective face mask for preventing COVID-19 transmission?

Face coverings have become a standard feature of pandemic life, but which mask is best for everyday use, and how should you take care of it?

9 February 2021

Protecting Lower-Income Countries with COVID-19 Vaccines Requires Global Solidarity

The medical and moral imperative for equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines is why COVAX was created. Co-led by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, together with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (…

8 February 2021

4 things about mRNA COVID vaccines researchers still want to find out

Researchers are already working to improve the current crop of mRNA vaccines. Hopefully this will help them become more practical and affordable for the entire world, not just first-world countries.

8 February 2021

How COVID-19 is altering cold and flu seasons

Pandemic restrictions and wider use of flu vaccines may have explained 2020’s record low cases of seasonal flu, but will the picture look like in tropical countries with year-round flu?

8 February 2021

COVAX Statement on New Variants of SARS-CoV-2

The emergence of variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, serve as a powerful reminder that viruses by their very nature mutate, and that the scientific response may need to adapt if they are to remain effective against them.

8 February 2021

How the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine could still help the battle against the COVID-19 variant

Research suggesting that one of the COVID-19 vaccines provides only minimal protection against mild-moderate infection caused by the 501.Y.V2 variant has raised concerns. But this doesn’t mean it won’t prevent severe disease and deaths.

5 February 2021

Eliminating cervical cancer depends on global effort to ensure supply meets demand

Global access to HPV vaccine is vital, particularly in lower-income countries. Lessons learned from HPV roll-out could boost uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.

5 February 2021

Why even a low efficacy COVID-19 vaccine could still be extremely useful

Efficacy rates for COVID-19 vaccines are higher than many scientists had dared dream of, but even if they prove less effective in real life, or in the face of new variants, they could still unlock normal life.

5 February 2021

Who can’t have a COVID-19 vaccine?

The currently available coronavirus vaccines have been tested on adults of various ages, as well as those with long-term conditions, and appear to be safe. But there are a few groups who should avoid being vaccinated for now.

5 February 2021

Why do measles survivors get sicker?

Scientists wanted to find out about the long-term effect of measles on the immune system. Scientific article for students.

4 February 2021

The Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine could stop transmission of the virus

Several COVID-19 vaccines may have now demonstrated their ability to prevent disease, but it was still not clear whether any could stop the virus being passed on. Now however a preliminary study suggests that some might also be able to reduce…

4 February 2021

Can the world ever be cervical cancer-free?

As World Cancer Day approaches amidst the COVID-19 pandemic,  it’s now more important than ever to ensure continued access to HPV vaccines to eliminate cervical cancer around the world.

4 February 2021

Women Leaders in Polio Eradication: Dr. Alda Morais Pedro De Sousa

Dr. De Sousa has spent more than twenty years charting the highs and lows of polio eradication in Angola.

4 February 2021

How safe are COVID-19 vaccines?

Given the speed at which COVID-19 vaccines have been developed, it is understandable that people want to know whether they are safe. So what measures have been put in place to ensure the safety of these new vaccines?

3 February 2021

Everything we know about Johnson & Johnson’s single-dose Covid-19 vaccine

The single-dose vaccine showed promising results in preliminary data from a phase 3 clinical trial.

3 February 2021

The next step: Lifesaving typhoid conjugate vaccines reach Punjab province, Pakistan

Punjab province introduces typhoid conjugate vaccine, taking the next step in protecting children from typhoid in Pakistan.

3 February 2021

How India is using a digital track and trace system to ensure COVID-19 vaccines reach everyone

A system originally designed to do real-time monitoring of vaccine supply chains in India has now been adapted to help ensure COVID-19 vaccines reach as many people as possible.

3 February 2021

Results from Novavax vaccine trials in the UK and South Africa differ: why, and does it matter?

The results indicate that the vaccine efficacy in the UK was 89% for individuals who received at least two doses of vaccine. In South Africa, the vaccine efficacy was 60% in people without HIV.

3 February 2021

COVAX publishes first interim distribution forecast

Geneva/Oslo/New York, 3 February 2021 – The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the World Health Organisation, as co-leads of the COVAX initiative for equitable global access to COVID-19 vaccines…

2 February 2021

COVID-19 vaccines are now approved in some countries. What will it take to approve them for the rest of the world?

With the World Health Organization inviting COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers to submit their candidates for evaluation, we examine the process from submission to Emergency Use Listing.

2 February 2021

COVID-19 variant found in Brazil ‘spreads faster’

Manaus variant spreads faster and could carry higher risk of infection. Researchers believe new variant spread from Brazil to Asia. Fast, widespread vaccination is best way to slow down mutations.

2 February 2021

When Your Chance for a Covid Shot Comes, Don’t Worry About the Numbers

When getting vaccinated against covid-19, there’s no sense being picky. You should take the first authorized vaccine that’s offered, experts say.

1 February 2021

Q&A: Tales from the COVID frontline – coping with the pandemic on a psychiatric ward

Irene Baker* is a care assistant at a psychiatric hospital in England. She describes the challenges of caring for mentally ill patients during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

1 February 2021

The body's fight against COVID-19 explained using 3D-printed models

A biologist explains what proteins do in viruses, how they interact with human cells, how the vaccine delivers mRNA into the cell and how antibodies protect us.

1 February 2021

New GPEI Director Aidan O’Leary takes helm of global polio effort

In a special one-off interview, PolioNews (PN) talks to both Aidan O’Leary (A-O’L) and Michel Zaffran (MZ) about the future of polio eradication.

29 January 2021

Vaccine cold chain Q&A

Pfizer and Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine candidates have turned the vaccine cold chain into hot news. But what is a cold chain? How does it work? And what does it have to do with equity?

29 January 2021

4 of our greatest achievements in vaccine science (that led to COVID vaccines)

We've gone from a novel virus to several COVID-19 vaccines in less than a year. Here's what we've learned from earlier vaccines to allow this to happen.

29 January 2021

COVAX Supply Forecast reveals where and when COVID-19 vaccines will be delivered

COVAX is forecasting it will roll out over 2 billion COVID-19 vaccine doses in 2021. What does that mean for the world’s poorest countries?

29 January 2021

How much of an impact do vaccines really have?

The world’s most comprehensive study reveals all! A new study looking at the impact of vaccinations in 98 countries over the past 20 years concludes that 37 million people are alive today thanks to vaccines.

28 January 2021

Will the Covid-19 vaccine work on the new variants?

Scientists are working to understand what mutations of the virus mean for inoculation strategies.

28 January 2021

How will COVID-19 vaccines be approved for use in Australia?

Australia is set to get the green light to roll out the Pfizer vaccine any day now. There is a complex process behind this.

28 January 2021

The state of the world’s sanitation

To achieve universal sanitation, we need greater investment and higher rates of sanitation coverage.

28 January 2021

Is there an economic case for global vaccinations?

New research adds to the argument that the global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines is the most optimal solution for a global economic recovery.

27 January 2021

What if I don’t get my second Covid-19 vaccine dose on time?

Don't panic if a second dose isn't available exactly when you need it.

27 January 2021

Friendship Bench: Zimbabwe’s Community-based Talk-Therapy Supporting Communities during the COVID-19 Pandemic

In Zimbabwe, Friendship Bench, a community-based approach is providing solutions to people struggling with their mental health during this pandemic.

27 January 2021

The importance of blood markers in assessing vaccine efficacy

If vaccine efficacy can’t be assessed through placebo-controlled trials in future, how can we know if they are effective?

26 January 2021

Hesitancy over new COVID-19 vaccines doesn’t seem likely to affect uptake

The initial concern that nervousness over the new vaccines would slow uptake doesn’t seem to have become a reality in the early days of COVID-19 immunisation, although it will be critical to maintain vaccine confidence suggests an Ipsos poll.

26 January 2021

South African scientists who discovered new COVID-19 variant share what they know

Scientists have observed that 501Y.V2 has quickly become "dominant" among multiple variants that have been circulating in the South African population.

26 January 2021

Door to Door in Miami’s Little Havana to Build Trust in Testing, Vaccination

It’s time-consuming but worthwhile: Residents respond to messages about Covid testing and vaccines when outreach teams speak their language and make a personal connection.

25 January 2021

COVID-19 impact ‘vastly underestimated’ in African countries

Zambian data challenges the assumption African populations may have been spared from COVID-19.

25 January 2021

How accurate are lateral flow tests?

Will these rapid tests really allow us to lower our guard during the pandemic?

25 January 2021

COVID-19 and the cost of vaccine nationalism

Without a vaccine, the worldwide economic impact of COVID-19 would have been $3.4 trillion a year. But even with a COVID-19 vaccine, unequal allocation could cost the global economy up to $1.2 trillion a year in GDP.

25 January 2021

Why healthy food and its local production should be part of the COVID-19 response

COVID-19 is deepening global food insecurity, as the pandemic’s economic impact adds to existing challenges.

24 January 2021

Coronavirus: why combining the Oxford vaccine with Russia's Sputnik V vaccine could make it more effective

Vaccines that use harmless viruses as a delivery mechanism are vulnerable to being attacked by our immune system – but experimenting with how they are given could get around this.

23 January 2021

Delaying the second COVID vaccine dose – a medical expert answers key questions

A medical professor explains the reasoning behind the delay in the UK and what impact this might have on the vaccine's effectiveness.

22 January 2021

COVAX announces new agreement, plans for first deliveries

COVAX announced the signing of an advance purchase agreement for up to 40 million doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; rollout to commence with successful execution of supply agreements.

22 January 2021

Could coronavirus persist in ‘safe havens’ of the body?

Some people continue to shed viral RNA for weeks or months after developing COVID-19. Could persistent pockets of infection be to blame?

22 January 2021

The public health impact of a single-dose HPV vaccination schedule

New review of evidence on a single-dose HPV vaccination schedule is published by PATH-led consortium.

21 January 2021

COVID-19 policy briefs must be realistic: a review by young southern African scientists

African leaders can make strategies to fight COVID-19 more accessible to the people.

21 January 2021

Lasting immunity: Why COVID-19 vaccines may succeed where natural infections fail

Immunity to most coronaviruses is short-lived, but will the same hold true for the virus that causes COVID-19 or vaccines against it?

21 January 2021

What it takes to vaccinate 39 million children in Pakistan

Health workers take COVID-19 precautions to deliver polio drops.

20 January 2021

The Ethics of Prioritizing COVID-19 Vaccination

In the United States and some other countries, members of disadvantaged racial and ethnic minorities have a lower-than-average life expectancy, and therefore are under-represented among those most likely to die from COVID-19. How should…

20 January 2021

5 Reasons to Wear a Mask Even After You’re Vaccinated

Vaccination, face coverings and physical distancing are essential parts of a team effort against the coronavirus.

19 January 2021

Breaking down barriers: UNICEF volunteers lead sanitation survey across Bangladesh

Young volunteers gain new skills and give back to their communities.

19 January 2021

Mutating coronavirus: reaching herd immunity just got harder, but there is still hope

New variants will push the number needed to reach herd immunity up.

18 January 2021

Will the new variant of COVID-19 make re-infection more likely?

New variants of the coronavirus are causing alarm across the UK and South Africa, with many countries closing their borders to travellers from these countries. But what effect could new strains have on our ability to control the pandemic?

18 January 2021

South Sudan: We are ready to take up the challenge

Western Equatoria Ministry of Health and UNICEF are preparing for COVID-19 vaccination campaigns.

18 January 2021

Eureka! Two Vaccines Work — But What About the Also-Rans in the Pharma Arms Race?

How two effective vaccines on the market make it so much harder to quickly test any competing vaccines.

18 January 2021

How COVID-19 is placing increased pressure on water resources for farmers in Cameroon

In Cameroon’s Marua region, the pandemic means farmers are now faced with the double challenge of using what limited water resources they have to grow crops while saving lives through handwashing.

15 January 2021

If I delay getting a COVID-19 vaccine, what impact will it have?

Taking a wait-and-see approach to COVID-19 vaccines could lead to only pockets of the population being protected. Will this be enough to end the pandemic?

15 January 2021

Oxford scientists: how we developed our COVID-19 vaccine in record time

What normally takes decades has been achieved in 12 months, without cutting corners.

15 January 2021

How South Africa is preparing for its COVID-19 vaccine introduction

As participating countries look towards receiving their first batch of COVID-19 vaccines through the COVAX Facility, we examine how South Africa is ramping up its readiness.

15 January 2021

Has Covid-19 permanently altered the development timetable for other vaccines?

Covid-19 has changed the world of vaccines, but that doesn't mean all diseases will get treatments as quickly.

14 January 2021

Preparing ahead: How Imo State harnessed the REDISSE project to improve its COVID-19 response

As at January 12, 2021, Nigeria has had over a hundred thousand confirmed cases of the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. The pandemic has continued to challenge healthcare system...

14 January 2021

Heading Off the Next Pandemic

As long as humans encroach on nature, pandemics are inevitable — making it important to concentrate resources in areas where people and wildlife are linked.

14 January 2021

Could COVID-19 vaccines be tweaked to cover new coronavirus variants?

We’ve always been able to adapt vaccines to protect against emerging variants and additional pathogen strains, but new vaccine platforms could make this even easier.

14 January 2021

What is it like to receive two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine? One 92-year-old shares his experience.

On 8 January, Derrick C became one of the first people in the UK to receive his second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, three weeks after the first dose. Here we ask him what that was like.

13 January 2021

How to keep Ebola vaccines at -70°C?

As a Gavi-funded emergency stockpile of Ebola vaccines becomes accessible, we look at the ultra-cold chain equipment used to keep these vaccines at the right temperature.

13 January 2021

Can you spread Covid-19 if you get the vaccine?

Answering this question will take us one step closer to our new normal.

13 January 2021

Why resistance is common in antibiotics, but rare in vaccines

How resistance to drugs originates, and why it's different for vaccines.

13 January 2021

Why lockdown can be bad for your immune system - and what to do about it

Lockdowns are an effective way of reducing COVID-19 infections, but they could take a more general toll on our health if we allow them to.

12 January 2021

COVID-19 immunity: how long does it last?

Long-term protection will depend on the 'memory response' developed by our immune systems – and the initial signs are promising.

12 January 2021

From biodefence to the DRC: How the Ebola vaccine became one of the fastest vaccines to license in history

COVID-19 vaccines are set to become the quickest vaccines in history to go from initial trials to rollout, but what lessons can we learn from its speedy predecessor: the Ebola vaccine?

11 January 2021

Lessons from Rwanda’s Fight Against COVID-19

While some of the world's richest and most technologically advanced countries have struggled to contain the spread and morbidity of COVID-19, Rwanda has set a shining example of how to manage a pandemic and safeguard public health. Chief among…

11 January 2021

Why delivering COVID-19 vaccines might be just as hard as developing them

From Liability Laws to Production Delays, the 2009 H1N1 Swine Flu Vaccine Rollout Offers a Cautionary Tale for Today.

8 January 2021

Coronavirus: few vaccines prevent infection – here’s why that’s not a problem

Sterilising immunity means that the immune system is able to comp