Evaluation of vaccines for epidemic preparedness and response

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Disease risk & burden

Epidemic potential of disease

Transmission route

Reproductive rate (R0) and generation time

Timing of symptoms and infectivity

Disease transmissibility and human transmission

Human/animal interface

Global risk

Frequency of outbreaks

Endemic potential

Risk of the disease becoming endemic

Disease burden

Total cases/year

Total deaths/year

Case-fatality rate or severity of disease

Cases of long-term disability

Disease impact on equity, society and economy 

Disproportionate burden of disease in vulnerable groups

Special benefits of vaccination for women and girls

Health system impact – healthcare workers and services

Social disruption – impact on vital services
Economic impact – cost of epidemics (direct & indirect)

Additional factors to be considered in disease risk and burden scenarios include: evolutionary potential of the pathogen, vector burden, impact of climate change and demographic changes. 

Vaccine impact and feasibility

Epidemic risk reduction/ mitigation

Efficacy of vaccine

Time to immunity

Indirect effects (herd protection/transmission blocking)

Implementation feasibility

Ease of storage

Dosing schedule

Acceptability in the target population

Considerations relating to timely delivery and use (composition of stockpile and factors influencing timely case detection and verification, including surveillance and the availability of rapid, effective diagnostics)

Long-term benefit

Cross-strain protection

Duration of protection

Stockpile attributes

Availability of medical countermeasures/alternative interventions

Stockpile turnover and value

Fit for Gavi & partners

Gavi comparative advantage

Burden in Gavi-supported countries as a proportion of global burden

Need for Gavi financing and market shaping

Complementarity with other initiatives


Vaccine stockpile cost

Annual cost of global stockpile

Operational cost

Incremental in-country operational costs per outbreak response


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