Introduction to Gavi’s VIS

Beginning with the first successful vaccine against smallpox in 1796, to the latest vaccines against pathogens such as COVID-19 and malaria, new vaccines are continually being developed, tested and rolled out to save lives. Every five years, Gavi takes stock of the vaccine landscape to assess the impact, cost, value and programmatic feasibility of underused or new vaccines of highest relevance to Gavi-eligible countries via the Vaccine Investment Strategy (VIS). The VIS sets new priorities for Gavi’s vaccine support programmes in a transparent manner through in-depth, evidence-based analysis and extensive consultations, including with independent experts.

Impact of VIS

Led by Gavi’s Policy team, the VIS process has helped increase Gavi’s portfolio from vaccines against 6 infectious diseases during its 2001–2005 strategic period to 19 today – including Board approvals for Ebola vaccine in 2019, COVID-19 vaccine in 2021 and malaria vaccine in 2022.

Figure 1: Accelerating access: growth of Gavi's vaccine portfolio

Gavi’s disease prevention focus and vaccine portfolio have evolved over time, moving from vaccines focused on routine infant immunisation to prevent endemic disease to include vaccines that target other age groups, such as HPV, as well as vaccines that support outbreak, epidemic and pandemic preparedness and response (PPR) through the establishment of global stockpiles.


The VIS operates on a five-year cycle to provide Gavi implementing countries, manufacturers, donors and other partners with predictability and information to support long-term strategic planning of immunisation programmes, as well as our upcoming strategic period. The process is focused on the needs and priorities of lower-income countries. The five-year time span reflects the long lead time required to develop; demonstrate technical success and model impact of; and approve vaccines.

VIS: informing Gavi’s future investments

Future investment

VIS 2024 timelines and scope

Each VIS process has been tailored to reflect the current global context and Alliance strategic priorities, as well as the availability of data and improved methods for assessing impact. VIS 2024 will be no exception – aligning with Gavi’s strategic priorities and considering innovative vaccine technology; a post-pandemic environment; impact of climate change; human-animal interface; as well as demographic transition, urbanisation and rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

In late 2022, Gavi initiated the planning for VIS 2024; in June 2024, the Gavi Board will take a final decision to inform Gavi investments between 2026–2030. The VIS process is overseen by Gavi’s governance structures: the Programme and Policy Committee (PPC) reviews, monitors and makes recommendations to the Gavi Board, which then makes the final decisions on VIS investments.

The assessment and evaluation of vaccine candidates is completed in three phases and Board decisions:

Phase 1:

  • generate longlist of potential investments, working with the World Health Organization (WHO) and based on pre-established inclusion criteria (see below)
  • develop evaluation frameworks against which to evaluate longlist products based on feedback from the VIS Steering Committee and other external consultations
  • demand forecasting and impact modelling

First Board decision: approval of longlist and evaluation frameworks.

Phase 2:

  • analyse longlist products according to evaluation framework to narrow to shortlist – again with insight from the VIS Steering Committee and other external consultations

Second Board decision: approval of shortlist of vaccines to be developed into investment cases.

Phase 3:

  • develop detailed investment cases (including modelling of potential costs and impact; proposed learning agendas or outstanding questions that would inform the roll-out of a successful vaccine programme; health system support; diagnostic/test support; as well as input from disease experts and other external consultations) for the shortlist vaccines, comparing against each other and existing portfolio vaccines to provide basis for final Board decisions
  • consider during investment case development Gavi’s comparative advantage and fit with anticipated strategic priorities.

Third Board decision: final decision on investment cases

VIS 2024 timelines and process

VIS 2024 timelines and process

The VIS process begins with an analysis of the vaccine landscape carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO) using the following inclusion criteria:

  • immunisation products of relevance to Gavi-eligible countries with expected licensure by 2030
  • vaccines of relevance to Gavi-eligible countries not currently in Gavi’s portfolio, or incremental investments for Gavi-supported vaccines

VIS 2024 is in close alignment with the development of the Gavi 6.0 strategy to ensure that the outcomes of VIS 2024 respond to and inform the strategic priorities defined in Gavi 6.0, which is scheduled for Board review in June 2024.

VIS analyses: capturing the full value of vaccines

VIS analyses are based on evidence and data that together provide an understanding of the full value of vaccines, beyond their impact on mortality and morbidity – to include social, economic and population health benefits. Our analyses help: inform the evaluation of pipeline vaccines and vaccines not currently in Gavi’s portfolio; determine the most relevant investment type; and understand potential designs for learning agendas and further data collection.

VIS analyses review the burden of disease and identify the most appropriate vaccination strategy for Gavi-eligible countries to enable demand forecasting. These data inputs are used to model health impact and costs, while implementation feasibility is also considered. Finally, vaccine candidates are compared to one another across these different factors, and to the current portfolio, to arrive at investment decisions. The VIS is highly consultative and inclusive, drawing on the breadth of multidisciplinary expertise of Alliance partners and other stakeholders – including countries, donors, civil society organisations (CSOs), disease experts and modelers – to reflect diverse perspectives.

18-month VIS process: robust, evidence-based

18-month VIS process: robust, evidence-based

These analyses are structured around an evaluation framework that is developed for each VIS. The framework reflects Gavi’s core mission (i.e. save lives and protect people’s health), Alliance stakeholder strategic priorities, as well as a review of the previous evaluation approach for continued fit and relevance. In addition, analyses are conducted on specific topics to identify opportunities and perspectives on additional measures of value and impact. The framework includes criteria and indicators that can be quantitative or qualitative and that are weighted differently to inform the prioritisation process.

The data we use to analyse vaccine products is highlighted below. VIS data requirements align closely with those outlined in the WHO Full Value of Vaccines Assessments (FVVA), as well as the Evidence Considerations for Vaccine Policy Development (ECVP).

VIS evaluation frameworks: broad understanding of return on investment

VIS evaluation frameworks

The VIS has two evaluation frameworks: one for endemic diseases and one for epidemic diseases. The public health goal of Gavi’s potential vaccine investment informs the evaluation framework that is used.

VIS role in assessing threat of outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics

While the VIS process includes products for outbreak, epidemic and pandemic preparedness and response (PPR), these can also be evaluated in real-time when needed to facilitate agile decision-making in context of a public health event or R&D milestone. The epidemics process in based on:

  • an epidemics evaluation framework structured around four key questions to inform future investment cases: disease risk and burden; role of vaccine; Gavi comparative advantage; and overall financial cost
  • development of “living assessments” for priority pathogens identified by WHO R&D Blueprint and CEPI – a tool to monitor emerging data; highlight data gaps; and facilitate timely decision-making upon epidemic and/or market triggers. Living assessments are developed for relevant vaccines until an investment case is triggered.

Living assessments are updated regularly

VIS 2024 Steering Committee

The VIS Steering Committee is convened prior to each PPC meeting (i.e. December 2022, March 2023, September 2023, March 2024) to deliver independent expert advice to the Gavi Secretariat across multiple perspectives. As per the Terms of Reference, the VIS Steering Committee will:

  • provide guidance on the strategic questions, methodology and process for the VIS;
  • provide guidance on the evaluation framework, criteria and weightings;
  • validate assumptions and outputs of analyses and models for each disease/vaccine; and
  • support strategic thinking on emerging recommendations prior to Gavi Board and PPC decision points.

The VIS Steering Committee is comprised of 20 individuals, including a Chair with strong technical and/or scientific expertise and broad-ranging perspectives on aspects pertinent to VIS analyses and decisions. Type of expertise includes, but is not limited to, epidemiology, health impact analysis/modelling, economic evaluations, vaccine implementation and service delivery, research and development, and health financing and planning. Members have been either: selected based on their individual expertise from a pool of applicants to an open call for expressions of interest; or appointed by the Secretariat ex officio to represent partner institutions and stakeholders – including two members of Gavi’s PPC (to serve as liaisons, providing strategic guidance and ensuring alignment between the committees); and a civil society organisation (CSO) representative.


Independent experts

Helen Rees, Chair
Wits RHI
Alejandro Cravioto
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Azra Ghani
Imperial College London
Mark Jit
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Ruth Karron
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Sonali Kochhar
University of Washington, Seattle
Tawanda Marufu
University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences
Amani Mustafa
The Carter Center Sudan
Rajinder Suri
Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network
George Warimwe
KEMRI - Wellcome Trust Research Programme
Meseret Zelalem
Ministry of Health Ethiopia



Update on previous VIS (VIS 2018)

In December 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Gavi Board paused or delayed availability of funding for vaccines that had been approved for inclusion in the 2021–2025 strategic period as part of the previous VIS (VIS 2018): rabies; hepatitis B birth dose; diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP)-containing boosters; and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

In 2023, the Gavi Secretariat will present the PPC with the following options for their consideration:

  • sequenced unpausing of vaccines, with programme design starting in 2024
  • reassessment of paused vaccines within the VIS 2024 process

Investment cases for VIS 2018 vaccines:

VIS 2024: governance documents

Additional investment cases

Last updated: 15 Jul 2024

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