Japan has played a prominent role in advancing the global health agenda since the G8 Summit in 2000 where infectious diseases control was extensively discussed. Since then, Japan has been taking a leading role in promoting universal health coverage and human security as the overarching approach for attaining SDG3.
Seeing the value of supporting immunisation as an entry point for UHC, Japan made its first commitment to Gavi at the 2011 pledging conference, committing US$ 9.3 million in direct contributions for 2011, and maintained a similar level of annual contribution up until 2014. In 2015, Japan doubled its contribution in support of health system recovery in the aftermath of the 2014 Ebola outbreaks.
In May 2016 at the G7 leaders’ Summit under its presidency, Japan for the first time announced a multi-year pledge to Gavi. In 2019, Japan hosted the launch of Gavi’s third replenishment as part of TICAD 7 in Yokohama. At the Global Vaccine Summit in June 2020, Japan announced to commit US$ 300 million to Gavi for 2021–2025, followed by a pledge of US$ 200 million to the Gavi COVAX AMC.
Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga made an additional pledge of US$ 800 million and dose donation at the COVAX AMC Summit in June 2021, which he co-chaired. Under the leadership of PM Kishida, who succeeded PM Suga, Japan again made an additional pledge of US$ 500 million to COVAX AMC. This brought the total Japanese contribution to COVAX AMC to US$ 1.5 billion, US$ 1 billion of which has already been disbursed.
Proceeds are funds made available to Gavi from donor contributions and commitments, either through cash payments made to Gavi, through frontloading via the capital markets of a future donor commitment to IFFIm, or through AMC funds released to Gavi via the World Bank. IFFIm proceeds are allocated over five-year periods coinciding with Gavi’s strategic periods. Proceeds for the current and future strategic periods are indicative until the end of each period and could be revised following changes in market conditions (interest rates or foreign exchange rates), the signing of new pledge(s) and/or changes in IFFIm’s disbursement profile.
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Direct Contributions (including Matching Fund)
Received contributions: non-US$ contributions for 2000-2022 are expressed in US$ equivalents using the exchange rates on the dates of receipt. For 2014-2022 where contributions were hedged to mitigate currency risk exposure, these have been expressed using the rates applicable to the hedge agreement.
Future contributions (for pledges made prior to the June 2020 donor pledging conference): non-US$ Direct Contribution and Matching Fund pledges for years 2023 and beyond are expressed in US$ equivalents using the applicable forecast rates from Bloomberg as at 31 December 2022 or using the rates applicable to any hedge agreement in place.
Future contributions (for pledges at the June 2020 donor pledging conference): non-US$ Direct Contribution and Matching Fund pledges for years 2023 and beyond are expressed in US$ equivalents using the spot rates from Refinitiv as at 31 December 2022 or using the rates applicable to any hedge agreement in place.
Received contributions: non-US$ contributions for 2000-2022 are expressed in US$ equivalents as confirmed by the IBRD (World Bank)
Future contributions: non-US$ contributions for years 2023 and beyond are expressed in US$ equivalents as follows:
For signed contribution agreements: contributions are expressed in US$ equivalents using the exchange rates at the time of signing the respective donor grant agreements
For contribution agreements not yet signed: contributions are expressed in US$ equivalents using the applicable spot rates from Refinitiv as at 31 December 2022
Due to IFFIm’s nature as a frontloading vehicle, yearly contributions paid into IFFIm can differ significantly from yearly proceeds transferred to Gavi.
While IFFIm grants are irrevocable and legally binding, they are subject to a Grant Payment Condition that can potentially reduce the amount due by the donor in the event that a Gavi-supported programme country is in protracted arrears with the International Monetary Fund. Since 29 June 2021, there is no longer any reduction applied, as all countries from the reference portfolio have cleared their arrears with the IMF.