Latest articles about polio       Routine vaccines: Polio

Gavi's impact

More than 112 million children immunised with Gavi support by the end of 2018

The Vaccine Alliance worked with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to support one of the fastest roll-outs in the history of vaccination: the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into the routine immunisation schedules of all Gavi-supported countries. As of April 2019, all countries which had not yet introduced IPV into their routine immunisation programme have now done so.

Nepal became the first country to introduce the vaccine with Gavi support in September 2014 – just 10 months after the programme was initiated. With Mongolia and Zimbabwe’s introduction of IPV on 1 April 2019, all Gavi supported countries had successfully completed their introductions, collectively immunising more than 112 million children.

IPV coverage in Gavi-supported countries increased more than fivefold from just 13% in 2015 to 66% in 2018. With 16 countries having introduced since 2018, coverage is expected to increase and reach levels closer to DTP3 (ie, third dose of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccines, which is given at the same time as IPV).


When the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched in 1988, polio was endemic in 125 countries and paralysed about 1,000 children per day. Thanks to global efforts and vaccination, polio cases have fallen by 99% since then, from an estimated 350,000 cases per year to 33 reported cases in 2018. In 2019, that number has tripled – with more than 100 reported cases and counting – underlining the challenges ahead to eradicate polio in the two remaining endemic countries.

Today, more than 18 million people are walking who would otherwise have been paralysed by the poliovirus. Only parts of three countries – Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan – remain polio-endemic – and Nigeria has not reported a case of wild poliovirus (WPV) for more than three years. In 2018, Gavi was invited to join the GPEI as a full member and since then is participating in its governing bodies.


To eliminate the primary risk of emergence of all types of vaccine-derived polio cases, the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) called for the phased removal of current Sabin-strain oral polio vaccine (OPV) – a critical and necessary step towards polio eradication. It’s important to clarify that the risk is not associated with the vaccine itself but rather low vaccination coverage. If a population is fully immunised, they will be protected against both vaccine-derived and wild polioviruses.

The process started in April 2016 with the “global switch” – the replacement of trivalent OPV (containing type 2 virus) with bivalent OPV (comprising poliovirus types 1 and 3 only). To minimise the risks associated with the switch, WHO recommended that all countries introduce at least one dose of IPV into their routine immunisation schedule before the transition. IPV provides protection against all three poliovirus types.

The World Health Organization (WHO) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization also recommends that countries consider vaccinating children who were missed due to global supply constraints of IPV since the switch, as they are currently not protected against poliovirus type 2. Gavi supports countries that decide to implement these recommendations.


For the tender period 2019–2022, the IPV price per dose has increased compared with the previous period (2014–2018). This means that Gavi funds $1.81 per dose in Gavi-supported countries, whereas middle-income countries are able to buy the vaccine through UNICEF for between $3.10 and $3.47 per dose. However, UNICEF anticipates lower prices from new manufacturers entering the market and potentially price reductions from current suppliers.

The issue

There is no cure for polio, but it can be prevented with a vaccine


Polio is a highly contagious viral infection, mainly affecting children under the age of five, which can lead to paralysis or even death. Many infected people have no symptoms, but they still excrete the virus, transmitting infection to others. In areas with poor sanitation, the virus easily spreads through contaminated water or food.

One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis, usually in the legs. Among those paralysed, between 5-10% of victims die when their breathing muscles become immobilised. Polio can only be prevented with a vaccine, as there is no cure. Multiple doses are required, usually providing lifelong protection.


The sheer pace and scale of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) introductions, coupled with the technical difficulties of scaling up production capacity, have led to severe supply constraints in previous years. At the peak of the issue, SAGE advised countries to consider switching to fractional doses of IPV. This approach, adopted by Bangladesh, Cuba, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, ensures protection while reducing the amount of vaccines used. However, 2018 was the first year in which sufficient supply of inactivated poliovirus was available, and nearly all introductions which had been delayed or interrupted as a result of supply issues were resumed in the course of the year. Although supply problems continue to cause an imbalance between supply and demand in the markets, we are seeing improvements.

In 2018, 14 countries introduced IPV into their routine immunisation system, and 12 countries resumed IPV vaccination after supply interruption in early 2016. The last two countries, Mongolia and Zimbabwe, introduced in April 2019 – meaning that all 126 countries that used only OPV in 2014 have now introduced IPV.


While Afghanistan and Pakistan carry the burden of wild poliovirus cases, in 2019 more than 200 cases of vaccine-derived poliovirus have been reported in east, central and west Africa, as well as southeast Asia. These are clear signs of weak health systems and that persistent low immunisation coverage rates can quickly reverse the gains.

GPEI has honed proven strategies for delivering polio vaccines to children everywhere, including in the world’s most challenging settings. Working with national governments – which are the primary owners and beneficiaries of the polio eradication effort – GPEI reaches more than 400 million children each year and tracks the virus in more than 70 countries to identify and respond to outbreaks quickly. The initiative’s new Polio Endgame Strategy 2019–2023 builds on these proven strategies while offering innovative solutions tailored to communities’ needs. Further, it focuses on improving health more broadly by working closely with the global health community to reach more children with routine vaccinations and basic health services. This incredible effort relies on a diverse and committed global team, ranging from frontline health workers and polio program staff to donors and political leaders in affected countries.

The moving timeline for eradicating polio, combined with global shortages of supply of IPV, has led the Gavi Board to extend the support of IPV post-2020 as part of Gavi’s vaccine investment strategy (VIS), recognising the importance of the vaccine as a global public good to achieve and sustain polio eradication.

Gavi's response

Gavi supports the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) Polio Eradication Strategy 2022–2026 through the introduction of IPV into routine immunisation programmes.


To complement the efforts of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), Gavi drew on its experience supporting new vaccine introductions in order to facilitate the rapid roll-out of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Gavi supported the introduction of IPV with funding from GPEI in eligible countries and helps to strengthen routine immunisation programmes.


The Vaccine Alliance supported one of the fastest roll-outs in the history of vaccination: the introduction of at least one dose of IPV into the routine immunisation schedules of Gavi-supported countries, which was achieved in April 2019, less than five years after the initial launch.

Countries introducing IPV received a one-time cash grant from Gavi, funded by GPEI, to support some of the additional activity costs related to introducing the new vaccine. These activities may include health worker training, social mobilisation, micro-planning, expansion or rehabilitation of cold chain equipment, printing of materials (such as immunisation cards), technical assistance and modifications to the surveillance systems.

GPEI has extended its deadline for eradicating polio from 2018 to 2023. The Gavi Board has also decided to continue support post-2020.


In 2016, SAGE advised countries to consider vaccinating children missed as a result of supply constraints as soon as sufficient IPV becomes available. Since then Gavi, UNICEF, WHO and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are working with countries to ensure implementation of the SAGE recommendation and allocate available supply, starting with the countries at highest risk of reintroduction of polio.

By the end of 2018, only 3 million out of 32 million children missed have been vaccinated with IPV. However, with the supply situation improving further, Gavi strives to reach all missed children before the end of 2020, when the window for support of catch-up is closing.


Routine immunisation is the sustainable, reliable and timely interaction between the vaccine, those who deliver it and those who receive it to ensure every person is fully immunised against vaccine-preventable diseases.

Strengthening routine immunisation is a pillar of the polio eradication strategy. High coverage provides a strong base for population immunity to prevent polio outbreaks and builds a sustainable platform for the introduction of IPV and other life-saving vaccines. In polio-endemic countries, the virus persists in marginalised populations where health and immunisation services are largely non-existent, and where oversight and management of primary health care systems are weak. However, the poliovirus cannot survive for long periods outside the human body. Without an unvaccinated person to infect, poliovirus will die out. As a result, strengthening routine immunisation is a critical factor in successfully interrupting all poliovirus transmission. 

Gavi is working to strengthen routine immunisation systems in all eligible countries, and to coordinate resources with other GPEI partners to strengthen routine immunisation in specific high-risk geographies of priority countries. These efforts benefit from the expertise developed by GPEI since 1988 to support and strengthen broader immunisation activities.

How to apply for vaccine support

May 6, 2021

Gavi Support Guidelines

Eligible countries can access detailed guidelines to manage the support they receive from Gavi.

Latest articles about polio

27 September 2023

Pakistan’s polio and routine immunisation programmes are linking hands. It’s working wonders

Their aims are aligned and their tools are complementary, says Huma Khawar, a health journalist who also works as a CSO coordinator with Pakistan's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI).

14 September 2023

Stopping an Outbreak in Its Tracks: Polio Response in Mozambique

CDC assists rapid response to a wild poliovirus outbreak in Mozambique.

4 September 2023

Burundi fights back against resurgent poliovirus

Round two of a nearly three-million child polio vaccination campaign was launched in mid-August, amid concerns the paralysing virus could still be spreading silently.

25 August 2023

New polio detection method could enable faster vaccine responses

A pilot study in the Democratic Republic of Congo suggests the method could roughly halve detection times.

23 August 2023

Polio Eradication Through Innovation

Today, the world is closer than ever to eradicating an ancient disease thanks to proven tools and brand-new innovations.

28 June 2023

New hexavalent vaccines are coming: What impact could they have?

UNICEF expects WHO prequalification of the first whole-cell pertussis hexavalent vaccine during the third quarter of 2023. Here’s how they differ from existing vaccines.

26 May 2023

One world: coming together, to achieve one common goal

Global leaders commit to ending polio once and for all.

23 May 2023

Book Excerpt: How the Iron Lung Transformed Polio Care

In 1928, two Americans invented a large metal breathing device that would become synonymous with polio treatment.

10 May 2023

After 30 polio-free years, Burundi fights the paralysing virus

An unvaccinated child in Bujumbura Province was the first diagnosed. Since then, 16 cases of acute flaccid paralysis have been found – but vaccines are being deployed.

2 May 2023

Review: Crip Camp

Polio survivor and international disability rights activist Judy Heumann died this spring at 75. A 2020 documentary portraying her legacy offers important lessons for global health equity.

6 April 2023

Motorbike-riding polio worker ruffles feathers and saves lives in rural Pakistan

Amina Khaskheli discovered she can reach more kids on two wheels than on two feet – so that’s what she’s doing. If the sight of her on her bike has upset some conservative onlookers, it has also inspired more than a few young girls.

21 March 2023

A broad coalition pulls together to help Indonesia curb polio in its vaccine-shyest province

Aceh is 95% vaccinated against Type 2 polio following a recent shock outbreak, a landmark achievement in the notoriously vaccine-hesitant province.

17 February 2023

How Uzbekistan scrambled to stay polio-free – and succeeded

Still endemic to neighbouring Afghanistan, polio was suddenly resurging in next-door Tajikistan. Uzbekistan’s health system needed to act fast, or risk the futures of its children.

15 February 2023

“Someone has to do this. And it’s us, here, now”

Rosemary Mukui Nzunza, the head of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) at the Centre for Virus Research, the Kenya Medical Research Institute, shares her story of pursuing a career in science.

25 January 2023

2023 – zero-dose children in seven subnational consequential geographies hold key to success

Polio programme must keep clear focus in 2023 on adapting operations amid broader humanitarian emergencies.

12 January 2023

Polio-free India: It seemed impossible until it was done

Dr Hamid Jafari, Director of Polio for the WHO’s Eastern Mediterranean Region, reflects on his time eradicating polio in India and what lessons we can take from this to address the final challenges for achieving eradication in Afghanistan and…

4 January 2023

For Some Survivors, Polio Casts a Long Shadow

Decades after the vaccine, adults with post-polio syndrome are struggling with symptoms – and looking for answers.

22 December 2022

The peril of polio control in shadow of war

Satellite imagery and deft negotiation are critical tools for polio vaccination teams working across the world’s conflict zones, writes Adeline Tchouakak.

9 December 2022

Polio experts eye clear tactics in final push to achieve success

As 2022 draws to a close, independent technical bodies from key epi-centres dive deep on what it will take to achieve success in 2023.

16 November 2022

Zimbabwe begins polio drive to quell first threat in 30 years

The country is working with neighbouring countries to vaccinate children under five against polio.

9 November 2022

We are at a crossroads for polio eradication. My experience in India shows why it’s still achievable.

A pediatrician and advocate reveals what’s at stake in the fight for global polio eradication – and why, despite recent setbacks, he refuses to despair.

31 October 2022

Pakistan is working with Rotary to eradicate polio

Pakistan is on a mission to get polio back under control following an increase in cases. Rotary International is playing a key role.

24 October 2022

The endgame: What will it take to eradicate polio?

Polio cases are down from hundreds of thousands every year in the 1980s to just a few hundred today. We are close to making polio the second human disease to be eradicated, but what will it take to finally consign this killer disease to the…

19 October 2022

Keeping communities healthy: Meet the midwives of Sri Lanka

Public health midwives (PHM) are integral to maternal and child health across Sri Lanka.

17 October 2022

How to Eradicate Polio? Funds+Vaccines+Access+Equity+Enthusiasm!

As activists, donors and health experts gather in Berlin to raise US$4.8 billion to fund the final push towards polio eradication, Pascal Barollier, Gavi’s Managing Director of Public Engagement and Information Services, gives his view on what’s…

17 October 2022

Wild polio returns to Africa: How the GPEI is helping stop an outbreak from becoming an inferno

In February 2022, a year and a half after the continent was declared indigenous wild poliovirus-free, the virus resurfaced in south-eastern Africa. As the Global Polio Eradication Initiative kicks off pledging to fund the 2022-2026 strategy,…

13 October 2022

Emergency health camps offer a lifeline to flood-affected families in Pakistan

To stem the potential health risks from the flooding, the government is establishing emergency health camps.

30 September 2022

Ghana revives its polio immunisation drive

In September 2022, Ghana completed the first of two four-day national immunisation drives against polio, following the confirmation of two acute flaccid paralysis cases in the country.

22 September 2022

Combining health datasets is helping polio vaccination efforts in Pakistan

Pakistan is one of just two countries where the polio virus remains endemic. Challenges remain in identifying and vaccinating all children, but data management software is providing a way forward.

15 August 2022

The long tail: Post-Polio Syndrome

Decades after recovering from polio, some survivors are developing progressive muscle weakness and fatigue that can severely impair their quality of life.

28 July 2022

What is vaccine-derived polio?

Before the introduction of vaccines, polio killed or paralysed more than half a million people worldwide every year. Since the late 1980s, cases have fallen by 99.9%, due to global efforts to immunise children with the oral polio vaccine. However…

27 July 2022

Polio in New York – an infectious disease doctor explains this exceedingly rare occurrence

The oral polio vaccine – which is no longer given in the US – relies on a live but weakened virus that can actually be passed from person to person.

25 July 2022

Routine vaccines, extraordinary impact: Polio

Polio cases have nose-dived by 99% since the late 1980s after a push to eradicate the disease, but clusters of cases across the world indicate that it could resurge if we don’t double down on eradication.

14 July 2022

12,000 kilometres towards polio eradication’s last mile

How the Rotarian behind the viral #LondonToLagos motorbike ride crossed continents to remind the world that the road to polio eradication won’t stay open forever.

5 July 2022

Tanzania’s polio vaccination drive registers success despite misinformation concerns

To pre-empt a possible outbreak after neighbouring Malawi registered its first polio cases in three decades, Tanzania is going door-to-door to vaccinate its children.

1 July 2022

COVID-19 vaccination efforts prove value of polio network for resilient health systems

New report provides evidence on role of polio workforce in COVID-19 vaccine rollout and essential immunization, and makes the case to sustain the network to strengthen public health.

29 June 2022

UK polio outbreak: What you need to know

British health officials have declared a national incident after routine surveillance identified potential community transmission of poliovirus in London. Gavi’s Head of Vaccine Programmes, Stephen Sosler, tells Linda Geddes how this can happen…

15 June 2022

An Imam promotes the power of vaccines in war torn Yemen

Medical doctors and religious teachers play a crucial role in building trust and convincing families to vaccinate their children against polio.

23 May 2022

Funding the Polio Eradication Endgame

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns that cutting back on eradication efforts could cause a global resurgence of polio that ten years from now could paralyze up to 200,000 children a year. The final five-year push to eradicate…

21 April 2022

Health workers march against polio

Reaching the remotest areas with the polio vaccine.

20 April 2022

Malawian polio case prompts mass vaccination campaign

After registering its first polio case in 30 years, Malawi has undertaken a door-to-door vaccination campaign across the country targeting 2.9 million children.

11 April 2022

India draws lessons from polio eradication initiative

The programme to eradicate polio shows that mass immunisation is possible in India.

1 February 2022

Unsung hero: how a polio survivor is changing the narrative

Polio survivors in Kano State are helping to change perceptions towards vaccines.

31 January 2022

Uganda’s door-to-door polio campaign targets unimmunised children

Uganda is working hard to ensure that all the gains made in the fight against polio aren’t lost to the pandemic.

17 January 2022

Pakistan reignites polio vaccination drive

Civil society, media, local influencers, celebrities, religious scholars, and frontline workers are all reinforcing the Pakistan government’s fight against Poliomyelitis.

12 January 2022

South Sudan committed to polio vaccination campaign in its remote areas

South Sudan has reignited the drive to vaccinate its children against the polio virus.

11 January 2022

Delivering essential vaccines in Kenya’s nomadic Gosha community

Kenya is raising awareness about vaccines to reduce the number of zero-dose children who never receiving a single dose.

17 November 2021

Teaming up to tackle polio in Lagos

With a recent outbreak of Vaccine-Derived Polio in Lagos and other states in Nigeria caused by poor vaccination coverage, teams are working to ensure that no child is left behind.

22 October 2021

Women Leaders in Polio Eradication: Dr. Folake Olayinka

Dr. Folake Olayinka speaks about overcoming gender-related barriers to immunization.

20 October 2021

Immunisation relieves the financial burden for families in Kenya

In Kenya, people often rely on their community for assistance in covering medical expenses. Immunisation changes this for the better.

8 September 2021

South Sudan’s polio vaccination campaigns are bearing fruit

South Sudan has systematically implemented campaigns to eradicate polio in the country. Hard-working vaccinators are striving to keep it that way.

6 September 2021

Anand Kumar: From polio to para-sports world champ

More often than not, the road to a meaningful triumph is a bumpy one.

26 August 2021

Over a million children get protected against polio in Malawi

Malawi’s Ministry of Health recently conducted a nationwide polio vaccine catch up campaign targeting 1.8 million children who had previously missed out on the vaccine.

4 August 2021

Review: The Cutter Incident by Paul Offit

Offit’s sobering inquiry into “one of the worst biological disasters in American history” is a work of unflinching investigative journalism which lands, finally, not as a whodunit, but as a tribute to modern systems of meticulous vaccine…

29 July 2021

“Saving the future of our children”: The women fighting polio in Pakistan

Pakistan is one of two countries where wild poliovirus remains endemic making it essential that the entire country supports the successful implementation of every polio campaign. Women play a critical role, often working at polio’s frontline.

12 July 2021

Community Health Workers stop the spread of COVID-19 and polio in Nairobi’s slums

Community health volunteers collaborated with local structures in the slums to help inhabitants survive lockdown and stop the spread of disease.

5 July 2021

Kenyans use their polio fighting network to tackle COVID-19

A rich network of community volunteers in Nairobi are putting skills they developed during anti-polio activities to work tackling COVID-19, and mobilising slum dwellers to get the COVID-19 vaccine.

1 July 2021

The Iron Lung

Before 1955, when a vaccine first made polio a preventable illness, the paralysing disease had to be treated. For many, the best option was the iron lung, a device that came to symbolise an era of anxiety in mid-20th century America.

30 April 2021

The vaccinators fighting polio in Rawalpindi

In pockets of vaccine resistance like Fauji Colony in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, children remain at risk of crippling polio. VaccinesWork meets the polio workers going door-to-door to change minds and protect children’s futures.

5 March 2021

A little less hesitation, a little more action - Elvis and the polio vaccine

As political and public health leaders across the world work to encourage people to get vaccinated against COVID-19, what can they learn from the King of Rock ‘n’ Roll getting jabbed?

4 February 2021

Women Leaders in Polio Eradication: Dr. Alda Morais Pedro De Sousa

Dr. De Sousa has spent more than twenty years charting the highs and lows of polio eradication in Angola.

1 February 2021

New GPEI Director Aidan O’Leary takes helm of global polio effort

In a special one-off interview, PolioNews (PN) talks to both Aidan O’Leary (A-O’L) and Michel Zaffran (MZ) about the future of polio eradication.

29 January 2021

4 of our greatest achievements in vaccine science (that led to COVID vaccines)

We've gone from a novel virus to several COVID-19 vaccines in less than a year. Here's what we've learned from earlier vaccines to allow this to happen.

21 January 2021

What it takes to vaccinate 39 million children in Pakistan

Health workers take COVID-19 precautions to deliver polio drops.

8 January 2021

Trekking through the snow to deliver vaccines

Vaccinators tackle winter conditions and challenging contexts during Afghanistan’s last polio campaign of the year.

14 December 2020

Rallying to vaccinate every child against polio

Community mobilizers inform and prepare communities for vaccinators.

23 November 2020

Resumed immunization campaigns are critical to preventing COVID-19 as well as polio

Local adaptation and innovation has allowed the resumption of polio immunization campaigns – and points the way to more effective, community-based delivery of a whole range of basic health services.

9 November 2020

Come together: how the fight to end polio can help the COVID-19 recovery

The world is anxiously awaiting the development of a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine. Nearly 60 years ago, the world was also waiting in eager anticipation of a publicly available vaccine to stop a disease that was ravaging communities around…

5 November 2020

Nigeria is polio-free. What next?

Throughout the country, all year-round, routine and supplementary immunisation activities took place to ensure that no child was left behind from being vaccinated.

23 October 2020

Ghana launches polio campaigns despite the challenges of COVID-19

In the face of the challenges posed by the pandemic, Ghana is working to protect 4.5 million at-risk children from polio through the launch of two polio vaccination campaigns. Here’s a closer look at those efforts for World Polio Day.

6 October 2020

AVADAR: How digital health fast-tracked Nigeria’s drive to eradicate polio

Polio, a contagious disease caused by the poliomyelitis virus is transmitted primarily when stool from someone infected contaminates foods, drinks or water sources. It invades the nervous system and could, in a matter of hours, lead to complete…

28 September 2020

The last mile of polio eradication and the vaccination challenges it brings

We are close to a polio-free world, yet cases of vaccine-derived disease are challenging the eradication effort.

23 September 2020

Leaders in the fight against infectious diseases

Snapshots from DRC, India and Zambia illustrate country ownership and progress in the fights against Ebola, polio and HPV.

4 September 2020

How Somalia is resuming vaccination campaigns despite COVID-19

More than 3,000 health workers are conducting a three-day health campaign from 30 August to 1 September 2020 to ensure that around 400,000 children aged under five receive measles and polio vaccines, as well as vitamin A and deworming tablets, at…

28 August 2020

Q&A with Helen Rees

How the African Region is Celebrating the End of Wild Polio while cVDPV Outbreaks Continue

27 August 2020

DRC: The great lengths that polio vaccinators go to reach every last child

By foot, boat and bicycle, thousands of volunteer vaccinators in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) go to extraordinary efforts, sometimes at personal risk, to help eradicate polio.

26 August 2020

Borno: Africa’s Last Wild Poliovirus Frontier

When Aisha took her son Busami Modu to his grandmother’s house in Kuya, a village in Borno state, Nigeria, she waved goodbye to a healthy, happy little boy. A “beauty to behold,” she recalls. The next time she saw him, he was paralysed and unable…

11 August 2020

How do the quarantine measures that have been implemented throughout history compare to the COVID-19 response?

COVID-19 has triggered lockdown measures for billions of people around the world. As many of us struggle to adapt to the ‘new normal’, we look at the origins of quarantine measures - and how they’ve been used to contain deadly outbreaks for…

16 July 2015

From Cameroon – a personal journey to end polio

Interview with David Rizzo, Vaccine Manufacturing Manager at Sanofi Pasteur.

24 October 2014

5 steps closer to a polio-free world

The road to polio eradication has been a long one so far, but in 2014, we’re closer than we’ve ever been to getting rid of the disease for good. Here are 5 reasons why.

3 October 2014

Pride in polio vaccination: manufacturer witnesses Nepal’s introduction of IPV

Article by Olivier Charmeil, President and CEO of Sanofi Pasteur

Last updated: 22 Aug 2023

Subscribe to our newsletter