The Gavi COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC) ensured access to COVID-19 vaccines and support for lower-income countries.

Gavi COVAX AMC Investment Opportunity

AMC Legal Support Resources


What was the Gavi COVAX AMC?

Gavi coordinated and raised funds for the COVAX AMC, an innovative financing instrument that supported the participation of 92 lower-income economies in the COVAX Facility.

The success of the AMC meant Gavi and COVAX could fully fund:

  • Vaccines, transport, syringes and storage for lower-income countries
  • Delivery support to governments, WHO, UNICEF, civil society and partners to turn vaccines into vaccinations
  • Vaccines for the most vulnerable and taking on liability to ensure access in humanitarian settings 
  • Dose donation associated costs, including syringes, safety boxes, no-fault compensation insurance, freight
  • Protection for patients and countries through a global insurance scheme to protect patients in lower-income countries who might suffer from rare serious adverse events
  • 2024–2025 Gavi COVID-19 vaccination programme
  • COVAX AMC-eligible economies

History and fundraising

At the Global Vaccine Summit on 4 June 2020, Gavi launched the Gavi COVAX AMC as the first building block of the COVAX Facility. Building on past Gavi innovative finance instruments such as the Pneumococcal AMC, the Gavi COVAX AMC leveraged the comparative advantages of the Alliance to link funding and procurement with catalytic investments in delivery, in support of low- and lower middle-income countries. To date, Gavi has raised more than US$ 12 billion in donor funding for the AMC.

Latest AMC news

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Religious leaders join chorus of support for vaccination in Nigeria

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Combining COVID-19 and routine vaccination: Nigeria implements a “whole family” approach

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More deliveries equals more demand for vaccines in South Sudan

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COVAX vaccines lead drive to reopen Uganda’s schools

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What the world can learn from Bhutan’s rapid COVID vaccine rollout

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Community health workers are critical in delivering COVID-19 vaccines

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COVAX Facility convenes first meeting of COVAX AMC engagement group

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Over US$ 2 billion raised to support equitable access to COVID vaccines with additional US$ 5 billion needed in 2021

The European Commission, France, Spain, The Republic of Korea and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation pledge US$ 360 million to Gavi’s COVID-19 Vaccines Advance Market Commitment (COVAX AMC)

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Japan pledges US$ 130 million to support global access to COVID-19 vaccines

Japanese Government pledges US$ 130 million in funding to the Gavi COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC), bringing the total raised to roughly US$ 1.8 billion.

Countries pledge nearly US$ 1 billion to support equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines

The United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Italy and Sweden pledge approximately US$ 960 million to Gavi’s COVID-19 Vaccines Advance Market Commitment (COVAX AMC)

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Australia commits AU$ 80 million to guarantee access to COVID-19 vaccines for all

The funding will support the Gavi COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC), which aims to secure doses of COVID-19 vaccines for 92 low- and middle-income countries and economies at the same time as wealthier nations

Up to 100 million COVID-19 vaccine doses to be made available for low- and middle-income countries as early as 2021

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92 low- and middle-income economies eligible to get access to COVID-19 vaccines through Gavi COVAX AMC

Gavi Board agrees scope of COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC), which aims to secure doses of COVID-19 vaccines for 92 low- and middle-income countries and economies at the same time as wealthier nations.

New private sector commitments to fund access to future COVID-19 vaccines announced at international pledging summit

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Gavi Board calls for global access to COVID-19 vaccines

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Gavi launches innovative financing mechanism for access to COVID-19 vaccines

Gavi Advance Market Commitment for COVID-19 Vaccines (Gavi Covax AMC) launched at Global Vaccine Summit 2020 draws strong support, early commitments from global leaders.

ARCHIVE: COVID-19 vaccine delivery and legal support

COVID-19 vaccine Delivery Support (CDS)

Gavi’s COVID-19 vaccine Delivery Support (CDS) was the way in which funding for COVAX and COVID-19 Vaccine Delivery Partnership (CoVDP) activities was channelled to governments and partners. Through CDS, Gavi provided more than US$ 1.1 billion in financial grants to countries; cold chain and ultra-cold chain (UCC) equipment; technical assistance; and support for management capacity enhancement, scale-up, and demand-generation and confidence activities. The goal of CDS funding was to help countries reach national coverage rates, with a specific focus on accelerating protection of high-risk groups, and to integrate COVID-19 vaccinations into regular programmes to achieve sustainable benefits for both.

AMC legal support resources

In addition to negotiating model indemnity agreements with vaccine manufacturers, to further minimise barriers to access, COVAX supported AMC92 countries to access pro bono legal support. COVAX engaged:

  • The International Senior Lawyers Project (ISLP) contacted a number of global legal experts on issues of indemnification and compensation who provided pro bono services to AMC92 countries that required it.
  • The O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University in the United States of America developed a preliminary (and non-exclusive) list of consultants around the world with relevant experience who could provide technical legal support to select countries in drafting the enabling legislation/regulation, and taking it through the relevant parliamentary or other necessary approvals.

COVAX AMC No-Fault Compensation Programme

A first of its kind pandemic innovation, the COVAX AMC No-Fault Compensation (NFC) Programme was designed to protect patients and lower-income countries in the novel liability climate created by the pandemic.

The NFC was designed to be fast, robust and transparent, making it easier for any individual affected by a serious adverse event from any vaccine procured or distributed through the COVAX Facility to get fair compensation – without having to go through a lengthy, expensive and uncertain legal process. The compensation was funded by donor contributions to the Gavi COVAX AMC.


The COVAX No-Fault Compensation Programme: Explained

Indemnity and liability was one of the thorniest problems COVAX had to solve to successfully roll out COVID-19 vaccines in lower-income countries. The solution is a world first, which could offer a model for future pandemics.

Application Documents & Resources


Authorizations for Vaccine Procurement from 20 Governments

In order to receive vaccines through the COVAX Facility, participating governments must legally authorize one or more actions in order to comply with the COVAX template indemnity agreement. Not all governments desiring to procure vaccines through COVAX will have current or past experience identifying, applying, or amending laws or regulations that will satisfy the indemnity agreement provisions. In order to provide assistance to those governments wishing to consider legal alternatives, the COVAX Facility has partnered with the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University, which has analyzed legal authorizations used by governments representing diverse legal and constitutional traditions to facilitate procurement of vaccines generally and, in some cases, COVAX specifically.

Authorizations for indemnity to vaccine manufacturers, distributors, and administrators has been enacted through three primary legal channels: public procurement laws, public health emergency laws, and laws specific to immunization. Legal precedents from 20 jurisdictions are included. Nine were adopted pursuant to COVID-19 specifically: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, EU, Malawi, Philippines, UK. Eleven were enacted previously: Ghana, Lao DPR, Liberia, Malawi, Malaysia, Nepal, New Zealand, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Vietnam, and Zambia.

The relevant clauses are listed following the designation of each statutory or administrative authorization. These statutes, regulations, rules, and decrees do not constitute legal advice, nor are these legal precedents maintained for day-to-day accuracy as some are subject to ministerial review and amendment on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. They are intended only to provide guidance as to how governments procuring vaccines through COVAX may take the necessary legal steps to satisfy COVAX requirements.

Checklist of Key Principles for Ensuring Legislative, Regulatory, or Ministerial Authority to Implement COVID-19 Vaccine Related Indemnity

Governments choosing to receive vaccines through COVAX must be able to show that they may legally indemnify COVAX partners, that is, accept legal and financial responsibility, for serious adverse reactions following immunization (SAEFI) with vaccines procured through the COVAX Facility.

This checklist is intended to assist countries identify the legal authorizations that may be used to fulfill these requirements. These legal authorities may be found in the constitutional text, in legislation, in regulations that may be issued by a proper authority, or by decree of the executive or authorized ministry. The checklist is supported by, and may be cross-referenced with, the accompanying resource, Authorizations for Vaccine Procurement from 20 Governments.

The checklist below provides steps for legal review that may be taken to ensure that proper authority exists to enter into agreements with COVAX Facility partners. Relevant laws may be found in more than one of these general areas, and proper authority may be codified in more general laws like those authorizing the president or executive to act during an emergency. Laws identified should still be reviewed against the national constitution, which may impose limits on borrowing, public finance, or relinquishment of legal claims by individual citizens.

Archived documents

Cold chain equipment support

The COVAX Facility is making available cold chain equipment (CCE) support to participating AMC 92 countries, although priority will be given to the 57 Gavi-eligible economies. Find below guidance on how to complete the application, descriptions of supported technologies and services and the necessary forms and templates to complete.

Technical assistance

To prepare all countries for COVID-19 vaccine introduction, WHO, UNICEF, Gavi, and partners are working together at the global and regional levels to support the AMC economies in the planning and preparation for introducing the COVID-19 vaccine. All AMC 92 economies are eligible to request TA although priority will be given to Gavi-eligible countries.

Vaccine Request

From 31 March 2022, COVAX AMC Eligible Economies should confirm participation in the AMC by submitting a completed and signed Vaccine Request Form, which should be submitted to, with a copy sent to the relevant Gavi Senior Country Manager (if applicable) or country focal point. By completing and signing the Vaccine Request Form, the COVAX AMC Eligible Economies are bound by the new COVAX AMC terms and conditions. 

The new COVAX AMC terms and conditions applicable to AMC Eligible Economies from 31 March 2022 are found below. 


An outline of the process that countries will be required to follow for COVAX Facility funding as well as elements to consider in requests.

How it worked: Accessing COVID-19 vaccines via the COVAX AMC

Explore COVAX


A historic multilateral effort co-led by Gavi, CEPI, WHO and UNICEF from 2020 through 2023, COVAX pushed to centre vaccine equity at the heart of the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVAX will come to a close on 31 December 2023.

COVAX Facility

Managing the end-to-end coordination of COVAX, ensuring pooled procurement and equitable distribution of COVID-19 vaccines around the world.


The Gavi COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC) ensured access to COVID-19 vaccines and support for lower-income countries.

COVAX in humanitarian settings

Addressing the most unpredictable and hard-to-fill gaps in access.

Last updated: 15 Jan 2024

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